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Myth and Religion: Roman gods
Terms in this set (14)
Name comes from the Etruscan (an Italian tribe) name 'Iov pater' who was worshipped as a sky god. Called Jupiter Optimus Maximus and worshipped on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Often represented with an eagle which became the symbol of the legions in the Roman army.
Because of the Roman desire to expand throughout the Mediterranean Neptune became increasingly important for sailors, traders and travellers.
Because of his position below the earth he was not often depicted in Roman art but did appear frequently on sarcophagi (stone coffins with engraved sculptures and inscriptions).
The enemy of the Roman hero Aeneas who tried to prevent him from founding a proto Roman civilisation in Italy and supported the city of Carthage, which was one of Rome's bitterest enemies. She is depicted with a peacock.
The Roman plebs depended upon grain for their existence - hence she had a temple on the Aventine Hill and the annual festival of the Cerealia.
She had her own priesthood (Vestal Virgins) and temple complex in the Roman forum - her flame was thought to have been brought from Troy and the continued burning of this flame was linked with the continuity of Rome.
Industry and warfare were vital to Roman culture and therefore required the assistance of Vulcan. The Vulcanalia festival was an annual honouring of the god. He created the armour used by Aeneas to defeat his enemies and establish the proto Roman culture in Italy.
Mother of Aeneas, the ancestral founder of Rome, and ancestor of the Roman Emperor Augustus. She is often depicted with her son Cupid.
Less closely associated with war and more with wisdom.
Also known as Phoebe with a temple on the Aventine Hill, dedicated by the sixth king of Rome, Servius Tullius, who had been born a slave. Closely followed by the urban poor and slaves. The temple to Diana was in honour of the treaty between Rome and the neighbouring Latin tribe.
Apollo had no Etruscan equivalent. He was favoured by Augustus after the Battle of Actium which brought him to power and had a temple on the Palatine Hill in Rome. Closely linked with Roman poets and sculptors.
As the Roman empire expanded Mercury became increasingly important as god of travellers. Worshipped personally in houses because of his links with trade and wealth - statuettes found in Roman lararia.
In early Roman history associated with agriculture but as Rome expanded (largely due to their military prowess) his role in war was celebrated. The Campus Martius ('Field of Mars') in Rome was the traditional training ground for the army and used for troops to assemble before marching off to war. Mars was the father of Romulus, founder of the city of Rome. The Emperor Augustus built a temple to Mars the Avenger after defeating the assassins of his adopted father Julius Caesar. This temple was the site of the dedication of plunder after a successful military campaign.
c. 200 B.C. the Bacchanalia festival was introduced to Rome; this attracted the opposition of the state and was declared illegal in 186 B.C. Bacchus continued to be popular with the lower classes.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
GCSE Classics - the cult of Hercules in Rome
Roman burial customs
Myth and Religion 1.6 - Myth and Symbols of Power
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