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AP Unit VII Quiz Ch 12&13 terms

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Central Place
A market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central Place Theory
A geographic concept that explains how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists.
Hinterland
Also called "market area", this is the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted to.
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Gravity Model
Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Rank-Size Rule
The country's n-th largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Modern World Cities
London, New York, and Tokyo.
World Cities
Most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are at the center of the flow of information and capital.
Central Business District (CBD)
Services of all types clustered in the center of the city, commonly called downtown.
Concentric zone model
model created by EW Burgess in 1923, which explains that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings, like the growth rings on a tree.
Density gradient
density change in an urban area.
Edge city
city around a beltway that is a node of consumer and business services
Filtering
process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people.
Gentrification
process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing.
Multiple nuclei model
model created by CD Harris and EL Ullman in 1945, which explains that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve.
Peripheral model
model created by Chauncey Harris, which describes how an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Public housing
housing provided to low-income households, who pay 30% of their income as rent for the housing.
Redlining
drawing of lines on a map to identify areas in which banks will refuse to loan money.
Renovated housing
housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.
Sector model
theory developed by land economist Homer Hoyt in 1939, which explains that a city develops in a series of sectors rather than rings.
Squatter settlement
settlement where a large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs live because of a housing shortage.
Underclass
what inner-city residents are frequently referred to because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems.
Urban renewal
something under which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities.
Zoning ordinances
rules developed in Europe and North America in the 20th century that encouraged spatial separation. They also prevented mixing of land uses within the same district.
Primate City
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Action Space
The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis.
Medieval City
European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense.
Suburbanization
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
Smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Urban Sprawl
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
Suburb
A residential district located on the outskirts of a city
Mega City
Cities with over 10 million people
Examples: Rio de Janerios, Mexico City, Bueno Aires.
Urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities