10 terms

NASM CES chapter 3 Human Movement Impairments

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Neuromuscular efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, synergists, and stablilzers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
Posture
The independent and interdependent alignment (static posture) and function (transitional and dynamic posture) of all components of the human movement system at any given moment; controlled by the central nervous system.
Structural efficiency
The alignment of each segment of the human movement system (HMS), which allows posture to be balanced in relation to one's center of gravity.
Functional efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to recruit correct muscle synergies, at the right time, with the appropriate amount of force to perform functional tasks with the least amount of energy and stress on the human movement system.
Cumulative injury cycle
A cycle in which an injury will induce inflammation, muscle spasm, adhesion, altered neuromusclular control, and muscle imbalances.
Movement impairment syndrome
Refers to the state in which the structural integrity of the human movement system (HMS) is compromised because the components are out of alignment.
Altered reciprocal inhibition
The process whereby a tight muscle (short, overactive, myofascial adhesions) causes decreased neural drive and therefore optimal recruitment of its functional antagonist.
Synergistic dominance
The process by which a synergist compenstates for a prime mover to maintain force production.
Lower extremity movement impairment syndrome
Usually characterized by excessive foot pronation (flat feet), increased knee valgus (tibia externally rotated and femur internally rotated and adducted or knock-kneed), and increased movement at the lumbo-pelvic-hip-complex (extension or flexion) during functional movements.
Upper extremity movement impairment syndrome
Usually characterized as having rounded shoulders and a forward head posture or improper scapulothoracic or glenohumeral kinematics during functional movements.
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