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Introduction to Anatomy with roots
Terms in this set (139)
studies the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another
the function of the body parts
Levels of Structural Organization
chemical → cellular → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
Maintain relatively stable internal conditions
feedback: reduces effect of stimulus
Eg. body temp, breathing rate, blood sugar levels
amplify or increase the occurrence of events.
Eg. labor contractions, blood clotting
muscle or glands that respond to deviation from the set point. Glands might initiate sweating to cool the body back to its set point.
the normal range that an environmental
parameter is to be controlled
detect certain environmental parameters within the body such as temperature, information is relayed to the brain
Body erect, feet slightly apart, palm face forward, thumbs pointing out
near the surface
Away from the body surface; more internal
means that a body part is above another part.
means that a body part is below another body part.
means towards the front.
means towards the back.
refers to an imaginary midline. A body part is medial if it is closer to the midline than another part.
means towards the side.
describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part.
means that a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part is.
Head, neck, and trunk
arms and legs
divides you into left and right
divides you into top and bottom
divides you into front and back
median = separates the body into equal right and left parts
Dorsal body cavity includes
what separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
Ventral body cavity includes
lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus
digestive, reproductive, urinary
contains the liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, intestines, spleen, kidneys, and ureters
contains the bladder, certain reproductive organs, and part of the large intestine
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
study of the cause of disease
pertaining to disease of unknown origin
front of elbow
the lateral portions of the face corresponding to the cheeks
buttocks; on posterior side of trunk
back of head; base of skull
back of knee
sole of foot
area of the pelvis below the abdomen
Digital/ phalangeal region
the posterior part of the leg (the calf)
without (avascular, apathy)
air (aerobic metabolism, aeroplane)
pain (fibro myalgia)
joint (arthritis, arthroscopy)
self (autonomic nervous system, autobiography)
germ (precursor cell; osteoblast (cells that make bones))
windpipe, airway (bronchitis, bronchial)
cardi- cardio- cardia-
heart (cardiac, cardiopulmonary)
brain (cerebral hemisphere)
neck (cervical vertebrae)
excision (appendectomy, mastectomy)
out of (exocytosis, exterminate)
same; homozygous, homeostasis
above; hyperactive, hyperthermia
below; hypothermia, hypothyroid
Loosening, break down; hydrolysis
the _________ determines the ___________
structure; function (heart has chambers to pump blood to the rest of the body)
4 basic components in every feedback control loop:
sensor mechanism (receptor), integrating or control center (brain), effector mechanisms, feedback
altered, or mutated genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made -> absence of essential function or perform abnormal function cause threat to inconsistency
disease causing, damage body, disrupt body function of host and cause disease
Proteinaceous infectious particles; proteins convert normal proteins of nervous system abnormal, loss of nervous system
intracellular parasites consist of DNA and RNA core surrounded by protein coat, invade cells make vital components
tiny primitive cells that lack nuclei, infect by parasitizing tissue or disrupt function; attacks cells, duplicates and infects
simple organisms lack chlorophyll pigment- can't make food so must parasitize other tissues (human body)
abnormal tissue growths or neoplasms
physical and chemical agents
toxic or destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical industry, radiation which affects homeostasis
insufficient or imbalance intake of nutrients cause disease
result from immune system attacking one's own body or from other mistakes or overreactions of the immune response
a normal mechanism that speeds recovery from infection/injury when abnormality severe
unknown processes, tissues break apart or degenerate, normal from aging
inherited trait (skin color) ethnic group-gene pool (sickle cell)
biological and behavioral variation causes greater risk (ear infection as child)
person activity (skin cancer) only factor one can control
physical, psychological, or emotional stress (hypertension)
climate or pollution (parasites in tropical climate)
"infectious cofactors" link hep B to liver cancer
pre existing condition
affect capacity to defend ourselves against an entirely different disease, risk for secondary condition (AIDS)
emerging infectious diseases
have not occurred in humans before or occurred in small numbers or isolated places
re-emerging infectious disease
once major health problem, declines, but are becoming an issue again for a large part of the population (whooping cough, e coli)
endemic infectious disease
perennial problem in population, never really declining (HIV/AIDS)
spongy, air filled organs that include tissues that help you breathe
pumps blood throughout the body via circulatory system
large, meaty organ on right side of belly that synthesizes proteins for digestion and growth
small intestine description
small bowel in gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and minerals from food takes place
large intestine description
large bowel, last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system; water is absorbed here and remaining waste materials is stored as feces before being removed by defecation
"C" shaped, located in upper left quadrant; receives food from esophagus; secretes acid and enzymes that digest food
keep bodily fluids balanced; located above stomach upper left quadrant
upper right quadrant, digestion and blood sugar regulation
two bean shaped, filter half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine
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