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Memory decline and amnesia
Terms in this set (29)
Used to refer to loss of memory, either partial or complete, temporary or permanent
Symptoms of amnesia
-Memory loss, confusion, inability to recognize familiar faces, objects and places
-typically a temporary loss of consciousness followed by a period of confusion
-duration of post traumatic amnesia varies but amnesia caused by a head injury often ends abruptly after a period of sleep
Organic causes of amnesia (2)
Refers to any brain damage that impairs or interferes with, the normal functioning of the brain, either temporarily or permanently.
2 types of brain trauma + eg
-inflicted brain injury (intentional blow to the head or violent shaking)
-acquired brain injury (accident, stroke, brain infection, drug/alcohol use, brain surgery, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease)
a disease characterized by a progressive decline in the structure, activity and function of brain tissue. Neurons become damaged and lose their function. Generally age related
2 types of amnesia
Brain damage causes loss of memory only for info experienced after the person sustains brain damage. Info or events prior to the damage still remains
What is a symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome
-Anterograde amnesia, thus inability to form new memories (don't remember info for more than a few mins)
-Can be unaware of their memory problems. -as a result, they confabulate sometimes
-May also have extensive loss of past memories (retrograde amnesia), usually of their adult life; however, can usually remember childhood years
What is koraskoff's syndrome
A neurodegenerative disease involving severe memory disorders associated with damage to brain stuctures and areas involved in memory (ie hippocampus)
Who does koraskoff's syndrome occur in
Mainly in chronic or long term alcoholics
Brain damage affects memory for information or events experienced BEFORE the person sustains the damage. Memory loss can extend back days, weeks or years
Causes of retrograde amnesia
Blow to the head -ECT
Does the memory for people suffering from retrograde amnesia ever recover?
-usually their inability to remember events before the trauma gradually disappears.
-however, they find that their memory for the period immediately before the accidents never recover
Is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of symptoms of a large group of neurodegenerative diseases & other disorders that cause a progressive decline in mental functioning, behavior and the ability to perform everyday tasks.
Symptoms of dementia
-decline in intellectual ability
-poor judgement -poor social skills
-abnormal emotional reactions
A neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual widespread degeneration of brain neurons, memory loss (past memories and new memories), decline in cognitive and social skills, personality changes
Symptoms of Alzheimers: plaques
-result from a protein called amyloid which foms in axon terminals interfering with communication between neurons
Symptoms of Alzheimers disease (1 more)
Reduced acetylcholine production which is used by neurons to communicate to each other.
Symptoms of alzheimers: tangles
Neurofibrillary tangles caused by abnormal build up of protein in neurons causing death of brain cells
Alzheimer's disease: plaques and tangles
-Result from a neurotoxic protein called amyloid
-Also reduced levels of acetylcholine which is used by neurons to communicate to each other, esp areas involved in memory and learning.
Is memory loss an inevitable consequence of aging?
Which memories usually decline due to aging? (5)
1. Working memory
2. episodic memory
3. ability to form new memories
4. prospective memory
5. decline in memory measured by free recall
Which memories do not decline due to aging? (3)
1. Semantic memories
2. procedural memory
3. memory as measured by recognition
How to maintain high levels of memory ability:
-avoid drugs, alcohol
-maintain brain activity with a variety of brain training exercises such as crosswords, reading
Reasons for memory decline over the lifespan (biological)
-reduced number of synapses in the hippocmpus
-reduced insulation fo axons of neurons
-there are changes in the functioning of pre-frontal cortex leading to changes in working memory and episodic memory
Reasons for memory decline over the lifespan (3)
-lack of motivation
-loss of confidence
-measure of retention which is used
-slowing of CNS functioning (cognitive slowing
- unable to mentally process info with the speed they once did)
amyloid plaque is a neurotoxic substance that kills the brain cells, they are a build up of proteins which prevent communication between neuron.
blobs and tangles of nerve fibres preventing communication between neurons.