Neural basis of memory
Terms in this set (20)
Action potential and where it originates
Is an electrical impulse that originates in the soma.
What happens when the axon potential reaches the axon terminals
It stimulates the release of neurotransmitters from the axon endings.
3 synaptic components
Presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron, synaptic gap
Axon ending that sends the neurotransmitter
Dendrite that receives neurotransmitter
Gap that lies between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron
Is a chemical substance produced by a neuron that carries a message to other neurons or cells in muscles and organs
Electrical or chemical: neural transmission process, action potential, neurotransmitter
Neural transmission process (electrochemical
-action potential (electrical)
4 types of neurotransmitters involved in memory formation
4 neurotransmitters: glutamate
Is an excitatory neurotransmitter - it excites the brain cells or neurons, particularly those involved in cognitive functions. Enhances information transmission, making postsynaptic neurons more likely to fire. Involved in learning and memory.
4 neurotransmitters: dopamine
thought to contribute to attention, learning and motor movement. It is dispersed from specific neurons in the brain and influences the activity of a large number of other neurons. Found to contribute to the strengthening of synaptic connections in the brain and therefore to the formation of LTM. As the level of dopamine increases or decreases, so does the functioning of working memory.
Found to contribute to the strengthening of synaptic connections in the brain and therefore to the formation of LTM. As the level of dopamine increases or decreases, so does the functioning of working memory.
4 neurotransmitters: acetylcholine
Signals both skeletal and smooth muscles to contract; also essential for memory formation. People with Alzheimer's have an inadequate production of acetylcholine.
4 neurotransmitters: norepinephrine
Influences the degree of alertness in the brain, controls hunger and is involved in learning and memory. Released when emotionally aroused and influences activities of the amygdala and hippocampus in the formation of emotional memories.
A physical o chemical change that is believed to occur in brain cells as they store info during memory formation
Eric kandel research on the Aplysia results
-after the aplysia learnt that the electrode did no damage to its tail...
-the Aplysia had an increase in amount of neurotransmitters produced by a neuron
-number of branches increased (bushier)
-new synaptic connections
Long term potentiation
Refers to the long lasting strengthening of synaptic connections of neurons resulting in the enhanced functioning of the neurons whenever activated
Changes in neurotransmitter due to memory formation
Increase in amount of neurotransmitter produced (functional
Changes in axon and dendrites due to memory formation
Increase in number of neurons, and dendrites become bushier (structural)
Changes in synapse due to memory formation
New synaptic connections form allowing for easier transmission (structural)