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Manipulation and improvement of memory
Terms in this set (18)
Techniques for enhancing or improving memory
Mnemonic devices: 'cohesive whole'
New info is not simplified, it becomes more elaborate. It is transformed into a 'cohesive whole' so that part of the retrieval assists with the rest of the retrieval too
Mnemonic device: narrative chaining
Linking unrelated items to one another to form a meaningful sequence or story. It is a form of elaborative rehearsal concerned with the logical organisation of info
Mnemonic devices: Acronyms
Where a list is to be learned, us of the intial letters of terms in the list to form a pronounceable word or syllable
Mnemonic devices: acrostics
Where a list is to be learned, use of the initial letters of terms in the list to be the intial letteres of wors that make a sentence
Encoding specificity principle
Suggests that the more closely the retrieval cues match the original learning conditions, the greater the chance of recalling that information
2 types of retrieval cues
Context dependent cues + eg
are environmental cues in the specific situation (context) where a memory was formed, which acts as retrieval cues to help access memories formed in that context. Eg going back to the place of the crimescene for eyewitness testimony + sights, smells, sounds
State-dependent cues + eg
Associated with indiiduals internal psychological and/or physiological state at the time the memory was formed, which act as retrieval cues to help access those memories eg. If info is learned when we are sad, we are more likely to retrieve that info in the same 'state'
When you later attempt to retrieve a memory you actively reconstruct it, recreate details of the memory. In this process, errors and distortions can take place
Memory reconstructions are influenced by.. (5)
-expectations, beliefs, experiences, ideals and mood
Research on eye witness testimony by..
Loftus and palmer
Eye witness testimony research investigated..
investigated the influence of question wording on memory and how information supplied after an event can distort a witnesses' memory for that event.
Eye witness testimony research: explain experiment
Participants wrote a desc after seeing the individual accidents.They were asked to answer specific questions (speed of the cars during collision).
-5 different verbs were used: smashed, collided, bumped, hit and contacted
Eye witness testimony research: findings
-most intense verb (smashed) brought about the highest speed estimates
-least intense verb (contacted) brought about lowest speed estimates
-participants memories were distorted by the verbal label that had been used to characterise intensity of car crash
Eye witness testimony research: did you see any broken glass
There was a higher % of people who were asked about the speed of the cars using the verb 'smashed into' said there was broken glass where as for contacted' there was less people who said yes to broken glass
Is a question that has content or is phrased in such a way as to suggest what answer is desired or to lead to the desired answer
Eye witness testimony research: A vs THE
Participants were asked 'did you see a/the broken headlight' and found that more people said yes to 'the' even though there was no broken headlight.