AP Biology Practice Test Concepts Flash Cards (Thomas Echezabal)

A list of concepts in the AP Biology Practice Test. Made by Thomas Echezabal - Ms. Donohue, Period 5.
Animal Cells and Plant Cells
Only animal cells contain centrioles. Plants on the other hand contain a cell wall made of cellulose, lysosomes, and large water storing vacuoles.
Plants conquering land
Most plants evolved off multiple abilities: ability to permit gas exchange, vascular tissues that transported nutrients and water, organs that anchored them on land, and a protective waxy covering. Flagellated sperms cells were not needed for plants to reproduce.
Elodea in sugar solution
The environment had to be hypotonic with respect to the cell's environment for the Elodea to undergo plasmolysis.
Acetylcholine and chemical agent
The enzyme "Acetlychlolinesterase" allows acetylcholine to exit the synaptic cleft. If denatured, acetylcholine will still be able to cross the synapse so it will not be degraded by the chemical agent in the synaptic cleft.
Base composition
Pyrimidines always bind with purines.
Radioactive iodine
Iodine is the major component of the thyroid gland. Radioactive iodine is known to indeed bind to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of a thyroid gland cell.
Reptile eggs' extra-embryonic membrane
The extra-embryonic membrane that functions in excretion and respiration in reptile eggs is allantois.
Liver non-function
The liver does not function in breaking down peptides into amino acids.
Hemoglobin - allosteric relationship
In a allosteric relationship between O2 and CO2, Hemoglobin's affinity for O2 decreases as blood pH (acidity) decreases.
Plants that add nitrates to soil
Legumes, also known as bean plants (lima beans), are vehicles for organisms that add nitrates to soil.
Two Components of Viruses
Viruses contain nucleic acids covered by a protein coat (capsids). They do not contain a cell wall, cell membrane, or proteins.
Flagellates, Ciliates, Sporozoans, & Green Algae
All these organisms are microscopic, single-celled, and eukaryotic.
Drosophila refers to the classification group known as the genus.
Fertilization in humans
In humans, fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube.
Development of egg without fertilization
The development of an egg without fertilization is known as parthenogenesis.
Hydrolysis involves the adding of a water molecule to split a covalent bond. The conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA is not an example of this.
Specific cell structures
Peroxisomes break down the hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Mitochondria provides cellular energy through cellular respiration and ribosomes synthesize proteins.
Primary site for glucose reabsorption
The primary site for glucose reabsorption is the proximal convoluted tube.
Metafemale syndrome
The failure in oogenesis that could have reproduced the metafemale syndrome would have had to involve Anaphase II during meiosis in which the chromatids would have failed to separate.
Hemophilia is a result of red blood cells clumping.
GnRH (Hormone)
GnRH is produced in the anterior portion of the pituitary gland.
Principle Inorganic Compound
The principle inorganic compound found in all living things is water since it lacks a carbon atom but is essential in sustaining all life on Earth.
Modes of asexual reproduction
Meiosis is not a mode of asexual reproduction but instead a process of creating sexual reproductive gametes.
Locomotion in annelids
Locomotion of annelids is accomplished through the interactions of muscles and paired setae.
Examples of connective tissue
Blood is not an example of a connective tissue. Ligaments, muscles, bones, and cartilage, on the other hand, are indeed.
Germination in plants
In most plants, germination is triggered by the presence of oxygen, water, and temperature.
Pyramid of energy
In pyramid of energy, each smaller trophic level possesses less available energy than the previous level (about 10% less by each animal consumed). This occurs because it is impossible to recycle energy that is being transferred by one organism to the next.
Crossing-over during meiosis
Crossing-over during meiosis allows scientists to determine the chance for variation in zygotes. During crossing-over, the male and female traits are crossed to produce two sets of 23 chromosomes which allows scientists to determine specific traits.
Nitrogen Cycle
During the nitrogen cycle, soil bacteria converts ammonia into minerals usable by autotrophs such as plants.
Similarity of Cloning to other processes
Meiosis is similar to cloning since it creates four identical haploid cells off two single diploid cells.
Viruses and the cell theory
Viruses are an exception to the cell theory because they are multi-nucleated which suggests they evolved from different ancestors to that of cells.
Organ that doesn't secrete digestive enzymes
The gall bladder does not secrete any digestive enzymes. Instead, it acts as a storage facility for the bile secreted by the liver.
Memory Loss
Memory loss would most likely be due to a malfunction of the cerebrum in the brain. The hypothalamus, pons, cerebellum, and medulla only serve efficient in autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing rate, arousal, etc.
Embryo of non-placental mammals
In non-placental mammals, the embryo obtains its food from the yolk sac.
Heterotroph hypothesis
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, heterotrophs had to evolve to sustain primitive life on earth.
Earthworm & Alveoli of a human
The malphigian tubules of a earthworm has a similar function to that of the alveoli of a human to allow gas exchange within the organism.
Cortisol aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function.
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during pregnancy.
Progesterone promotes uterine lining.
The hypothalamus is involved in regulating hormones via the pituitary gland.
Parathyroid hormone
The parathyroid hormone increases blood levels of calcium.
Insight learning
Insight learning is the process of learning how to solve a problem or do something new by applying information that is already learned.
Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Imprinting is a process in which humans and some animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Circadian rhythm
A circadian rhythm is a daily cycle that regulates biological processes in a 24 hour period.
Germ layer that gives rise to the skin
The ectoderm is the germ layer that gives rise to the skin.
Germ layer that gives rise to epithelial lining, etc.
The endoderm is the germ layer that gives rise to inner linings of all associated organs.
Germ layer that gives rise to connective tissues.
The mesoderm is the germ layer that gives rise to connective tissues.
Biome: Soil high in nutrients.
The tropical rainforest contains soil high in nutrients.
Biome: low temperatures and short growing season.
The tundra biome is characterized by low temperatures and a short growing season.
Biome: animal life includes black bears, moose, and wolves.
The Taiga biome includes animal life such as black bears, moose, and wolves.
Flower Anatomy: embryo sporophyte.
The embryo develops in the ovary of the plant.
Flower Anatomy: structure similar to human testes.
The anther has a similar function of that to human testes in plants since its main function is to reproduce sperm cells.
Flower Anatomy: sticky, pollen-trapping structure.
The stigma acts as a pollen-trapping structure in plants.
Flower Anatomy: meiosis occurs in this structure to produce microspores.
Meiosis occurs in the ovule of the flower to produce microspores.
Cell cycle: chromosome replication phase.
The chromosome begins to replicate in the m phase (mitotic phase).
First sign of Prophase
In mammalian cells, the first sign of prophase is given with the appearance of chromosomes after the formation is complete.
Mitosis occurs in all but the following...
Kidney cells cannot undergo mitosis. Pancreatic, epidermal, hair, and red blood cells on the other hand can.
If neurons can never divide again...
If neurons cannot divide, then they will be permanently arrested in the G1 phase where it will not be able to move on to the S phase where the DNA is replicated.
Biosynthesis of cytidine 5'-triphosphate requires...
It requires a ribose sugar, phosphate groups, and a nitrogen base.
Chlorophyll pigment & function
Chlorophyll's green pigment allows it to capture different color waves and use that energy under photolysis for photosynthesis.
TSH & thyroxine (negative feedback)
Too much of TSH and thyroxine in the body can cause the metabolic rate along with the blood calcium level to decline or become altered in an organism.
Chemical nature of genes
A gene is located on a specific locus of a chromosome. A gene contains sequences of DNA which code for specific traits in living organisms.
Replication process of DNA
The replication of DNA involves enzymes such as ligase and helicase to unwind a strand of DNA and copy its content unto a new parent strand for genetical modification or observational purposes.
Point mutation
Point mutation occurs by substituting one nucleotide for another in a DNA sequence.
Frame-shift mutation
Frame-shift mutation occurs by inserting or deleting one or several nucleotides in a DNA sequence.