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Biol test terms
Terms in this set (234)
What are aggregations of tissues performing specific functions called?
What is a group of cells with a similar structure and function?
Which model is used to explain enzyme activity?
Lock & key
Where is amylase produced?
Salivary glands & pancreas
Where is lipase produced?
Pancreas & small intestine
Where is protease produced?
Stomach, Pancreas & small intestine
What does amylase do?
Break down starch into sugars
What does protease do?
Break down proteins into amino acids
What does lipids do?
Break down lipids into fatty acids & glycerol
Where is bile produced and stored?
Produced in liver, stored in gall bladder
What are the 2 functions of bile?
Neutralise stomach acid and emulsifies fats so lipase can work efficiently
What is used to test for sugars?
What is used to test for starch?
What is used to test for protein?
Why is the heart described as a double pump?
Right side pumps to the lungs for oxygen, left side pumps around the rest of the body
Which blood vessel brings deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart?
Which blood vessel transports blood from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen?
Which blood vessel transports blood from the lungs to the heart?
Which blood vessel transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body?
Where does gas exchange take place in animals?
What is the natural resting heart rate controlled by?
Pacemaker cells in right atrium
Which device can correct irregularities in the heart rate?
What are the 3 types of blood vessels?
Capillaries, veins, arteries
Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
Which blood vessels contain valves?
Which blood vessels have the narrowest lumen?
Which blood vessels carry oxygenated blood?
Which blood vessels carry deoxygenated blood?
What 4 main substances does blood consist of?
Plasma, platelets, WBC, RBC
Which 3 main ways can cardiovascular disease be treated?
Drugs, mechanical devices or transplant
What are stents used for?
Keep coronary arteries open
What do statins do?
Reduce blood cholesterol
What can faulty heart valves be replaced with?
Biological or mechanical valves
What may happen to heart valves if they become faulty?
Not open properly, or develop a leak
What can be used whilst waiting for a heart transplant or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery?
What is health?
The state of physical and mental well-being
What are risk factors?
Factors that lead to an increased rate of disease
What can a poor diet, lack of exercise and smoking lead to?
What can obesity lead to?
Type 2 diabetes
What organs are affected by alcohol?
Brain and liver
What risk factor can lead to lung cancer and lung disease?
What can carcinogens, including ionising radiation, lead to?
What is cancer?
Changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled growth & division
What type of tumour is contained in one area and do not spread?
What type of tumour can invade neighbouring tissues and other parts of the body to form secondary tumours?
Which type of tumours are cancers?
Which leaf cell layer contains the most chloroplasts?
In which leaf cell layer does gaseous exchange occur?
Which plant tissue transports water and dissolved ions?
Which plant tissue transports dissolved sugars?
Which plant tissue is found at the growing tips of roots and shoots?
Which cells are responsible for controlling the opening and closing of stomata?
What are the pores on the underside of the leaf called?
Which 4 factors affect the rate of transpiration?
Temperature, humidity, air movement, light intensity
What is transpiration?
The evaporation of water through the stomata in the leaf
Which 2 processes do root hair cells take in water and mineral ions?
Osmosis and active transport
What are microorganisms that cause disease called?
What 4 things could pathogens be?
Bacteria, virus, fungi, protist
What do bacteria produce that damage our tissues and make us feel ill?
Where do viruses reproduce which causes cell damage?
Reproduce inside cells
Which viral disease causes a fever and a red skin rash?
How is measles virus spread?
Inhalation of droplets from sneezes and coughs
What is HIV infection controlled by?
What is late stage HIV infection where the body's immune system becomes so badly damaged that it can no longer deal with other infections or cancers?
Name a plant virus that causes a discolouration of the leaves as a pattern and affects the growth of the plant due to lack of photosynthesis?
Which bacterial disease is spread by contaminated food?
What are the symptoms of Salmonella food poisoning?
Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea
Name a STD that is spread by a bacterium.?
Give 2 symptoms of gonorrhoea.?
Thick yellow/green discharge and pain upon urinating
Name a plant fungal disease.?
Rose black spot
What is a symptom of rose black spot?
Purple or black spots develop on leaves which turn yellow and drop
How is rose black spot spread?
By water or wind
How is rose black spot treated?
Fungicides and/or removing and destroying affected leaves
Name a protist disease. ?
Give a symptom of malaria.?
Recurrent episodes of fever
How can the spread of malaria be controlled?
Preventing vectors (mosquitos) from breeding and using mosquito nets to avoid being bitten
Name a non-specific defence system of the human body.?
Skin, nose, trachea/bronchi, stomach
In which 3 ways do WBCs help to defend against pathogens?
Antibodies, antitoxins, phagocytosis
What is a vaccination?
Introducing small quantities of dead/inactive pathogens to stimulate WBCs to produce antibodies
What do antibiotics do?
Give an example of an antibiotic.?
Can antibiotics kill viral pathogens?
Do painkillers kill pathogens?
Why is it difficult to kill viruses?
May also damage the body's tissues
Where does the heart drug digitalis originate from?
Where does the painkiller aspirin originate from?
Who discovered penicillin?
What is the first stage of drug testing called?
What 3 things are new drugs extensively tested for?
Toxicity, efficacy and dose
Where is pre-clinical testing done?
In a lab
Who does clinical testing involve?
Healthy volunteers and patients
What is a placebo?
What is a double-blind trial?
Patient and doctor do not know who has been given the real drug
How are monoclonal antibodies produced?
Stimulating mouse lymphocytes to make a particular antibody, lymphocytes are combined with a tumour cell to make a hybridoma cell, which divides and makes the antibody, a large amount of antibody can be collected and purified
What are monoclonal antibodies?
Antibodies specific to one binding site
Give a disadvantage of using monoclonal antibodies.?
Give a use of monoclonal antibodies.?
Pregnancy tests, measure hormone levels, to locate specific molecules in the body (binding them to a fluorescent dye), treat diseases
How can monoclonal antibodies be used to treat cancer?
Bound to radioactive substance, a drug or chemical which stops cells dividing, without harming other cells
Give 3 ways in which plant diseases can be detected.?
Stunted growth, spots on leaves, areas of decay (rot), growths, malformed stems/leaves, discolouration, presence of pests
How can plant disease identification be made by?
Reference to gardening manual/website, identification in the lab, using testing kits that contain monoclonal antibodies
In plants, what ion deficiency causes stunted growth?
In plants, what ion deficiency causes chlorosis?
Give 3 physical defence responses.?
Cellulose cell wall, tough waxy cuticle, layers of dead cells around stems (bark) which fall off
Give 2 chemical plant defence responses.?
Antibacterial chemicals, poisons to deter herbivores
Give 3 mechanical plant adaptations.?
Thorns/hairs, leaves which droop/curl when touched, mimicry to trick animals
What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O 🡪 C6H12O6 + 6O2
Is photosynthesis an endothermic or exothermic reaction?
What can affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Temperature, light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and the amount of chlorophyll
In what type of building are limiting factors economically important?
Name 3 ways in which plants use glucose from photosynthesis.?
Respiration, storage as starch, produce fat/oil for storage, produce cellulose for the cell wall, used to produce amino acids for protein synthesis
Along with glucose, what do plants need to make proteins?
Nitrate ions absorbed from the soil
Is respiration an endothermic or exothermic reaction?
What does aerobic respiration use?
What does anaerobic respiration not use?
What is produced in anaerobic respiration (in animals)?
Lactic acid and glucose
What is produced in aerobic respiration?
Carbon dioxide and water
What do organisms need energy for?
Chemical reactions to build larger molecules, movement, keeping warm
What is the balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 🡪 6CO2 + 6H2O
Which type or respiration releases the least amount of energy?
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animals?
Glucose 🡪 lactic acid (+ a little energy)
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants and yeast?
Glucose 🡪 carbon dioxide + ethanol
What is anaerobic respiration in yeast cells called?
Give 2 uses of anaerobic respiration. Manufacture of bread and alcoholic drinks
What 3 changes occur to the heart and lungs when exercising?
HR increases, BR increases and breath volume increases
What does the incomplete oxidation of glucose lead to?
Build up of lactic acid and oxygen debt
Where is lactic acid converted back into glucose?
What is oxygen debt?
The amount of extra oxygen the body needs after exercise to react with the accumulated lactic acid and remove it from the cells
What is the sum of all reactions in a cell or the body called?
What is homeostasis?
The regulation of the internal conditions of a cell or organism to maintain optimum conditions for function in response to internal and external changes
Why is homeostasis important?
To maintain optimal conditions for enzyme action and all cell functions
What 3 factors must be controlled in the human body?
Blood glucose concentration, body temperature and water levels
What 3 things to all control systems include?
Receptor cells, coordination centres, effectors
What do receptor cells do?
What is a stimulus?
A change in the environment
What do coordination centres do?
Receive and process information from receptors
What can effectors be?
Muscles or glands
What do effectors do?
Bring about responses to restore optimum levels
What does the nervous system allow humans to do?
React to their surroundings and coordinate their behaviour
How does information from receptors pass along neurones to the CNS?
What does the CNS consist of?
The brain and spinal cord
How are reflex actions different to voluntary actions?
They are automatic and rapid and do not involve the conscious part of the brain
Why are reflex actions important?
They protect us from harm
What does a reflex pathway involve?
Stimulus 🡪 receptor 🡪 sensory neurone 🡪 relay neurone in spinal cord 🡪 motor neurone 🡪 effector 🡪 response
What does a voluntary pathway involve?
Stimulus 🡪 receptor 🡪 sensory neurone 🡪 CNS (brain) 🡪 motor neurone 🡪 effector 🡪 response
Which part of the brain is involved in coordinating muscular activity and balance?
Which part of the brain is concerned with consciousness, intelligence, memory and language?
Which part of the brain is concerned with unconscious activities such as controlling the heartbeat, gut movements and breathing?
Which type of brain scanning method can be used to take images as someone carries out a simple task?
How can parts of the brain be stimulated e.g. to experience hunger, anger, fear etc?
What is accommodation?
When the lens changes shape to focus on near/distant objects
What changes in the eye occur to focus on a near object?
Ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments loosen, lens is thicker and refracts light rays strongly
What changes in the eye occur to focus on a distant object?
Ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments tighten, lens is thinner and only slightly refracts light rays
What happens to the pupil in dim light?
In the iris, circular muscles relax and radial muscles contract to dilate the pupil
What happens to the pupil in bright light?
In the iris, circular muscles contract and radial muscles relax to constrict the pupil
What is the function of the retina?
When light hits it, light sensitive cells are stimulated
What is the function of the optic nerve?
Sends impulses are sent to the brain
What is the function of the sclera?
Tough and strong so the eye is not easily damaged
What is the function of the cornea?
Lets light into the eye
What is the function of the iris?
Muscle that controls the size of the pupil
What is the function of the ciliary muscles and suspensory ligaments?
To hold the lens in place
What is myopia?
What is hyperopia?
What type of lens is required to correct myopia?
What type of lens is required to correct hyperopia?
What centre is temperature controlled by?
In the thermoregulatory centre, what are receptors sensitive to?
Temperature of the blood
What happens if the body temperature is too high?
Vasodilation and sweat production
What happens if the body temperature is too low?
Vasoconstriction and shivering
How does shivering increase body temperature?
Muscle contraction releases heat through respiration
How does sweat decrease body temperature?
Heat is lost when sweat evaporates from skin
What does the endocrine system consist of?
Glands and hormones
What do glands secrete?
What are hormones?
?: Chemical messengers that travel in the blood to bring about a change in a target organ
What are the main differences between the nervous system and endocrine system?
Effects of the endocrine system is slower but longer-lasting
Which gland is the 'master gland' which secretes several hormones in response to body conditions?
Where ae the adrenal glands located?
Above the kidneys
Where is the pituitary gland located?
In the brain
Where is the thyroid gland located?
In the neck
Which organ controls and monitors blood glucose concentration?
What happens if blood glucose concentration is too high?
Pancreas releases insulin that causes glucose to move into cells. In liver and muscle cells the glucose is converted into glycogen for storage
What is glycogen?
Stored glucose in the liver and muscles
What happens if the blood glucose concentration is too low?
Pancreas releases glucagon that causes glycogen to be converted into glucose and released into the blood
How does glucagon interact with insulin to control blood glucose levels in the body?
In a negative feedback cycle
What is type 1 diabetes?
No insulin is produced
How is type 1 diabetes treated?
What is type 2 diabetes?
Body cells no longer respond to insulin
What is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes?
What is a treatment for type 2 diabetes?
A carbohydrate controlled diet and an exercise regime
Water leaves the body via the lungs during what?
Water, ions and urea are lost from the skin through what?
Is there control over water, ion and urea loss by the lungs or skin?
Through which organ is excess water, ion and urea removed from?
Kidneys (in urine)
What happens to body cells if they lose or gain too much water by osmosis?
They do not function effectively
What must happen to the digestion of proteins that results in excess amino acids?
What happens in the liver to excess amino acids?
Deaminated (amine group removed) to form ammonia
What is ammonia converted into?
Why does ammonia need to be converted into urea?
It is toxic
What is the function of the kidneys?
To maintain water balance in the body
How do the kidneys produce urine?
Filtration of the blood and selective reabsorption of useful substances (glucose, some ions, water)
Which hormone controls the water levels in the body by acting on the kidney tubules?
What does ADH do to the permeability of the kidney tubules?
If blood is too concentrated what happens?
ADH is released by the pituitary gland and causes more water to be reabsorbed back into the blood through the kidney tubules (negative feedback)
In which 2 ways can kidney failure be treated?
Dialysis or transplant
What is the basic principle of dialysis?
Concentration of dissolved substances in the blood is restored to normal levels. Levels of useful substances in the blood are maintained, while urea and excess mineral ions pass from the blood into the dialysis fluid
During puberty, what do reproductive hormones lead to?
Secondary sexual characteristics to develop
Where is oestrogen produced?
What is ovulation?
The release of an egg from the ovary
What is the function of testosterone?
Stimulates sperm production
What is the function of FSH?
Matures the egg in the ovary
What is the function of LH?
Stimulates the release of the egg from the ovary
Which 2 hormones are involved in maintaining the uterus lining?
Progesterone and oestrogen
Where are LH and FSH released from?
What is the function of oestrogen?
Stop FSH production and cause LH to be released How do oral contraceptive work?: Contain oestrogen and progesterone to inhibit FSH production so no eggs mature
How do injections, skin patches and implants work in controlling fertility?
Slowly release progesterone to inhibit the maturation and release of eggs for years or months
Give 2 examples of barrier methods of contraception.?
Condom & diaphragm
How do barrier methods of contraception work?
Prevent sperm reaching the egg
How do intrauterine devices work?
Prevent implantation of an embryo or release a hormone
What do spermicide agents do?
Kill or disable sperm
What does the rhythm method of controlling fertility involve?
Abstaining from intercourse when an egg may be in the oviduct/fallopian tube
How can fertility be permanently controlled?
Surgical methods of male and female sterilisation
Which hormones are involved in treating infertility?
FSH and LH
What does IVF involve?
Giving woman FSH and LH to stimulate maturation of several eggs, eggs are collected and are fertilised in the lab which develop into embryos, then one or 2 embryos are inserted into the uterus
Give a disadvantage of fertility treatments.?
Emotionally & physically stressful, low success rates, can lead to multiple births which puts both mother and baby at risk
Where is adrenaline released from?
When is adrenaline released?
In times of fear or stress
What effect does adrenaline have?
Increases HR & boosts the delivery of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles, preparing the body for fight or flight
What is the function of thyroxine?
Stimulates the basal metabolic rate
Where is thyroxine released from?
Name the process by which plants grow towards light. Positive phototropism
Name the process by which roots grown in the direction of gravity. Positive geotropism Name the plant growth hormone. Auxin
What are gibberellins involved in?
Initiating seed germination
What is ethane involved in?
Cell division and ripening of fruit
What 3 things are auxin used as?
Weed killers, rooting powders, for promoting growth in tissue culture
What 3 things are gibberellins used for?
To end seed dormancy, promote flowering, increase fruit size
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