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Pol 202 Exam 1; Prof. Dixon; University of Arizona
Fall 2014 Complete POL 202 Study Guide for Exam 1; Professor Dixon; University of Arizona You're Welcome
Terms in this set (56)
Strictly speaking, what is the difference between a nation and a state?
Nation: people who share common language, race, culture
State: entity endowed w/ legal personality
What are the criteria for statehood under the Montevideo Convention?
-capacity to enter into relations w/other states
What is the most important requirement for achieving statehood under the constitutive theory?
Related to the Montevideo Convention, the most important requirement for achieving statehood under the constitutive theory is recognition by the other states.
What is meant by anarchy in international relations?
the absence of a central authority w/ the ability to make laws that bind all actors.
Explain the lasting significance of the Peace of Westphalia.
Helped accomplish and lay down the rules of statehood. It helped stabilize borders, resolve religious conflicts, start the bargaining of the modern system of states, and establish sovereignty.
What is meant by the term "mercantilism"?
The economic theory that proposes that the prosperity of a state is dependent on its supply of capital, the global volume of international trade is constant and unchangeable and only one party may benefit (zero sum)
What is sovereignty?
It is the quality of having supreme independent authority over a geographic area, such as territory
Why is it important for understanding international relations?
Without understanding the concept of sovereignty, it would be possible to have a lack of understanding with another nation that would lead to unwanted conflict
What is meant by Pax Britannica? Approximately when did it occur?
Pax Britannica, Latin for British Peace, was a time of relative peace in Europe from 1815-1914. The British Empire controlled most of the key maritime trade routes and had virtually unchallenged sea power. Ended with the beginning of World War I
Who were the principal antagonists in the Cold War? Approximately when did it occur?
The principle antagonists were the United States and the Soviet Union. Though, they never officially engaged in conflict through physical combat. Instead they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, conventional and nuclear arms races, proxy wars, and technological competition such as the space race.
Identify the two principal Cold War alliances.
NATO was a military alliance created in 1949 that brought together many Western European nations, the United States, and Canada.
The Warsaw Pact was a communist alliance formed by the Soviet Union in 1955.
How did the role of the UN differ in the Persian Gulf conflict of 1990-91 and the invasion of Iraq in 2003?
In the Persian gulf War, the United Nations acted collectively to halt Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; they demanded the pull out and sent troops into Iraq when they didn't. However in the Iraqi conflict in 2003, the US acted unilaterally rather than with the UN.
What is a dominant strategy in game theory?
A Dominant Strategy is when an actor makes the same choice regardless of what his opponent does. Although sometimes, a player's best choice depends on what the opponent does
What is the dominant strategy in the Prisoner's dilemma?
The dominant strategy is to defect (confess to the crime) since either way it yields a greater outcome regardless of the partner's actions
What is meant by equilibrium in game theory?
Equilibrium exists if no actors change their strategy, despite knowing the strategy choice of the other actor.
What is the difference between cooperative interactions and bargaining interactions?
Cooperative interactions occur when two or more actors adopt politics that make at least one actor better off than it would otherwise be.
Bargaining describes an interaction in which actors must choose outcomes that make better off at the expense of the other
Identify and explain the two key qualities of public goods?
1. Nonexcludable: If the good is provided to one person, others cannot be excluded from enjoying it as well. If one person is protected from a foreign invasion, all other citizens are also protected
2. Nonrival in consumption: Second, if one person consumes or benefits from the public good, this does not diminish the quantity available to others. One person's enjoyment of protection from foreign invasion does not diminish the quantity of security available to others.
What is a collective action problem?
Each actor aims to benefits from it without bearing costs
How does linkage work to facilitate cooperation?
Actors can combine issues that are being discussed or worked on. Thus if one actor fails to cooperate in on aspect, then the other actor will refuse to cooperate on the other, linked, issue. Ex: Canada and the United states are discussing border issues and a trade agreement, the US could link the two issues. If Canada doesn't cooperate on the border issue, then the US will not cooperate with the trade agreement.
How does iteration work to facilitate cooperation?
Repeating interactions multiple times and thus increasing trust with every new successful cooperative interaction. An actor is more likely to cooperate when they know they will have to deal with this other actor again in the future.
Explain the meaning of power.
The ability to make another actor do something they do not especially want to do. The more power, the better their bargaining position.
What is the principle insight of the bargaining theory of war?
If two actors are bargaining over something, say a peace of territory they both want, they each have a predetermined range of solutions that they would peacefully accept.
What is the bargaining range?
A range where two actors overlap. This is the range of solution that both sides would accept peacefully. On either side of this range are the solutions only one side accepts, and the other side is willing to fight to avoid a settlement in this range.
Draw a simple bargaining model identifying ideal points for each actor, the likely outcome (p) and costs (p-a, p+b) of war, and the bargaining range.
It's not hard, just look at the damn graph.
What is the difference between compellence and deterrence?
Compellance: Attempting to altar the current situation (status quo) with the threat of force. "Do this or else"
Deterrence: Attempting to maintain the current situation (status quo) with the threat of force. "Do not attack or there will be retaliation"
What two elements of a bargaining situation are most likely subject to incomplete information?
1. Capabilities: The actor's physical capability to prevail in conflict: troop strength it can mobilize, quantity and quality of arms, and economic ability to fund war effort
2. Resolve: The willingness of an actor to take on costs in order to obtain victory or good.
What is meant by brinksmanship? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
Strategy in which opposing actors act in ways that make accidental war more likely, hoping that the opposing actor will alter course first ("blink first") and concede.
Actors can use brinkmanship because it gives credibility to a threat of war. Being willing to risk war separates resolute and irresolute opposing actors
What is meant by tying of hands? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
States can send credible signs of their willingness by putting themselves in situations that makes backing down difficult (I can't change because if I do I will have bad consequences).
Actor shows the other side that if they do something, they will go to war—and they stand by that promise. Ex: First Iraqi invasion Bush said this will not stand and he backed it up.
Explain the meaning of points p1-a, p1 and p1+b in the upper diagram and why they shift to p2-a, p2 and p2+b in the lower diagram.
P1-a= is the outcome A would prefer to war
P1+b= outcome B would prefer over war
P1=expected out come of the war
This shift occurs because at sometime in the future A becomes more powerful and therefore war would be close to state a's ideal point.
What makes a good indivisible and how does indivisibility affect the prospects for war?
A good is indivisible when it cannot be divided without diminishing its value. This makes war inevitable because compromise solutions are impossible to reach and bargaining becomes "All or nothing" Both states prefer war to nothing. Ex: Israel and Palestine fighting over land that they perceive to be indivisible.
What are commitment problems? Why do they affect the likelihood of war?
Commitment problems arise when states cannot hold another to a promise since they cannot generally rely on repeated interaction to enforce said promise. Ex: Neither actors in the Gaza conflict trust the "treaties" made and decides to attack again.
Commitment problems raise the likelihood of war when such a state is able to destroy the other side.
Identify three general strategies to make war less likely.
1. raising cost of war
2. increasing transparency so as to reduce the dangers of miscalculation
3. bringing in third parties to enforce commitments between states. Ex: UN enforcing non-proliferation of nuclear arms in South America. Actors can trust that their neighbors are not stockpiling arms because the ban on nuclear weapons prevents either side from doing so.
What is the unitary actor assumption?
Treats states as coherent actors with a set of interests that belong to the state.
What does the phrase "where you stand depends on where you sit" mean?
Where you are situated in life ("where you sit") influences what position you take on an issue ("where you stand")
What is the "rally effect"? Give a historical example.
The tendency of people to become more supportive of their government in response to dramatic international events.
After the terrorist attacks on 9/11, President Bush saw his approval ratings jump from 51% to 86%
What is meant by the diversionary incentive?
Leaders might be tempted to intentionally start a war to distract (divert attention) from problems back home
What is the distinction between hawks and doves in the context of foreign policy?
Hawks seek war while doves seek peace
What is meant by the military-industrial complex?
The military-industrial complex is the alliance between the military and any industries that benefit from international conflicts such as arms manufacturers. Term coined by Dwight D. Eisenhower. Ex: General Electric had contracts to create the joint striker fighter.
What is meant by the democratic peace?
Democratic peace is the observation that democracies rarely fight other democracies, although they are not less war-prone overall.
Identify and explain the two core elements of democracy.
1. Contestation: is the ability of different individuals and groups to compete for political office.
2. Participation: is the ability of a large portion of the country to be involved in the selection process through elections.
How do leader's interests and options differ in democratic and nondemocratic countries?
Democratic leaders face higher costs from international institutions than nondemocratic leaders.
Nondemocratic leaders may be more willing to go to war.
Identify and contrast the two general approaches to conflict resolution contained in the United Nations Charter.
Peacekeeping operation—IGO remains neutral, promotes compromise, UN Charter Chapter 6; Ex: Israel v. Palestine—IGO just mitigated the conflict
Peace-enforcement operation—IGO takes sides, promotes victory, UN Charter Chapter 7
What is the difference between an alliance and a collective security organization?
Alliances: form when states have common interests that lead them to cooperate militarily. They are institutions created between or among states to facilitate cooperation for the purpose of influencing outcomes of disputes with outsiders
Collective Security Organizations: Form around a common interest, which all states are presumed to share in promoting peace. They want to prevent or stop violence. Ex: League of Nations and the UN.
What is the difference between "balancing" and "bandwagoning"?
Bandwagoning: a strategy in which states join forces with the stronger side in a conflict. This strategy is the opposite of balancing, which occurs when weak states join to counter a stronger state.
Refer to the bargaining diagram in Figure 5.1 on p.176 of the text. What happens to the bargaining range when a third state C is expected to join state B in the event of a war?
When state C is expected to join state B, the bargaining range shifts closer towards state B's ideal point because the war becomes costlier for A.
Name the permanent members of the UN Security Council.
China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States
Identify one currently existing collective security organization and give one actual example of a successful collective security operation it performed.
United Nations! →When Iraq invaded Kuwait the UN stepped in and sent troops to Iraq
What is meant by peacekeeping?
Peacekeeping= is outside sources coming into conflicts in order to act as peacekeepers. The UN does this by sending troops in to make sure both sides abide to ceasefire
Provide a definition of terrorism
The use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims
***This is Dixon's own definition
What is meant by asymmetrical warfare?
Warfare involving surprise attacks by small, simply armed groups on a nation armed with modern high-tech weaponry. Ex: Vietname war—we were the superpower but we did not know how to fight a gorilla war.
What do we mean when we say that terrorists are rational?
Terrorists are rational because terrorist networks choose targets, respond to risk and adjust to counter-terrorist efforts in rational way. Even random terrorist attacks have a strategy behind them
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of coercion and provocation?
Provocation: strategy of terrorist attacks intended to provoke the target government into making disproportionate response that alienates moderates in the terrorist's home society or other sympathetic audiences
Coercion: The threat or imposition of costs on other actors in order to change their behavior. This includes military force, economic sanctions, and embargoes.
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of spoiling and outbidding?
Spoiling: strategy of terrorist attacks intended to sabotage leadership from the terrorists' home society.
Outbidding: strategy of terrorist attacks designed to demonstrate a capability for leadership and commitment relative to another, similar terrorist groups
What is the difference between separatism and irendentism?
Separatism: the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. (Wanting to exclude a group of people)
Irredentism: any position of a state advocating of territories administered by another state on the ground of common ethnicity or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. (wanting to be included in another group of people)
What is meant by the statement that civil wars are usually caused by grievance or greed?
Greed: Combatants in an armed conflict desire to better their situation so they do a cost benefit analysis to determine whether or not the reward is greater to join a rebellion or not
Grievance: The argument that people rebel over issues of identity such as ethnicity, religion, social class, etc. rather than over economics.
What is proxy war? Give a historical example of a proxy war
A war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. Ex: Vietnam War: The Soviet Union supported North Vietnam in order to spread communism to Indochina and humiliate the United States.
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