Upgrade to remove ads
Hypertension Pathophysiology and Drug Therapy
Terms in this set (48)
Primary or essential hypertension
type of hypertension that has an unknown cause
high blood pressure due to a specific cause like chronic kidney disease, thyroid disease, renovascular disease, chronic steroid therapy, and sleep apnea
blood pressure= (cardiac output) x (systemic vascular resistance)
equation that shows the physiological relationship of blood pressure in the body
genetic inheritance, environmental factors, and dietary factors
factors contributing to the development of hypertension
false, hypertension doesn't have set signs and symptoms all though these are sometimes found in patients that are later diagnosed with hypertension
T or F: Hypertension cause signs and symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and fatigue in all patients
during routine screenings
How is hypertension commonly discovered in patients?
myocardial infarction, heart failure, thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes, and renal failure
complications of uncontrolled/untreated hypertension
<120/<80 mm Hg
normal blood pressure measurements according to the JNC 8
>140/>90 mm Hg
high blood pressure measurements in people ages 18-59 (JNC 8)
high blood pressure measurements in people ages 60+ (JNC 8)
consistent, continuous, and independent of other factors
How is the relationship between BP and cardiovascular disease?
chance reduction of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure
benefits of lowering blood pressure
How much does lowering blood pressure lower your chance of stroke incidence?
How much does lowering blood pressure lower your chance of myocardial infarction incidence?
How much does lowering blood pressure lower your chance of heart failure incidence?
DASH diet, weight management, reduce sodium, increase physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption
Lifestyle modifications for hypertension prevention and management
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
What does DASH stand for?
5-20 mm Hg/10 kg weight loss
What is lb/mm HG ratio to lose weight? -potentially the most effective way to manage hypertension
DASH eating plan
a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products with a reduced content of saturated and total fat.
no more than 2.4 grams
What should the dietary sodium intake be reduced to for those trying to prevent hypertension?
2-8mm Hg (same as 6 grams of sodium chloride)
How much can reducing sodium intake reduce BP?
4-9 mm Hg
How much can 30 minutes of physical activity lower BP?
2 drinks containing 1 oz of ethanol
What should men limit their alcohol consumption to?
1 drink a day
what should women limit their alcohol consumption to?
<150/<90 mm Hg
what is the goal to lower blood pressure to in patients 60 years old or older.
<140/<80 mm Hg
what is the goal to lower blood pressure to in patients younger than 60 years old.
Thiazide-type diuretic, angiotensin-coveting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI), angiotensin receptor block(ARB), or calcium channel blocker(CCB)
initial medication therapy for treating high blood pressure
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), chlorthalidone (Hygroton)
Mechanism of action of Thiazide-type diuretics
acutely reduce blood pressure due to diuresis by their actions in the distal convoluted tubules of the nephron, but chronically they mobilize sodium and water from arteriolar walls reducing vascular tone or they directly relax vascular smooth muscles; net effect is reduced systemic vascular resistance.
decreased serum levels of potassium, sodium, chloride, and magnesium; increased serum levels of uric acid and calcium; dehydration and orthostatic hypotension if dosed or used inappropriately
common adverse effects of thiazides
muscle weakness, fatigue, aches, stiffness, cramps, spasms, twitching or paralysis from low potassium, abnormal heart rhythm; high calcium levels cause excessive thirst and frequent urination, stomach pain, bone pain and muscle weakness, confusion, lethargy, fatigue, anxiety, and abnormal heart rhythm; risk of gout from high uric acid levels
implications of thiazides
The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)
involves several endogenous components that help regulate vascular tone and regulate sodium and water balance
Angiotensin (renin) to Angiotensin I (ACE) to Angiotensin II
sequence of events of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
What organ is responsible for creating renin?
What organ is responsible for secreting angiotensin
What organ secretes ACE?
Arteriolar vasoconstriction, ADH secretion, and aldosterone secretion
what are the three effects angiotensin II causes when it is activated?
increased blood pressure
Arteriolar vasoconstriction leads to
water absorption which leads to increased BP
ADH secretion leads to..
NaCl reabsorption, K excretion, and water retention that leads to increase in BP
aldosterone secretion leads to..
ACE inhibitors (ACEIs)
What drug alters the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system?
Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
Mechanism of action of ACEIs
blocks the angiotensin coverting enzyme leading to reduced levels of angiotensin II. net effect is reduced systemic vascular resistance and lowered BP
Adverse effects of ACE inhibitors
first dose hypotension; cough; hyperkalemia; renal failure; fetal injury; angioedema
type of angiotensin II receptor blockers
mechanism of action of Losartan
directly blocks the actions of angiotensin II
reduced arteriolar tone and systemic vascular resistance, and lower BP
What is the effect of Losartan?
hyperkalemia, cotraindicated in pregnancy, doesn't cause cough like ACEIs
adverse effects of Losartan
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 17 Drugs for Hypertension
ATI chapter 36 hypertension
CHAPTER 18 PATHO- TAKEN FROM http://thepoint.lww.c…
Pharmacology Exam 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
NEURO WEEK #2
NEURO WEEK #1
Obesity and Diabetes
ECG and Rhythms
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Econ 103 midterm formulas/terms #4
Black History Timeline
TEXAS HISTORY REVIEW CARDS
Honors World Cultures Final