What makes blood flow between chambers of the heart and within blood vessels?
-differences in pressure -blood travels from high pressure to low pressure
Can the AV valves open in both directions?
-yes, they are like "swinging saloon doors"
What happens when the SA node fires?
-left atrium contracts (systole)
What results from the contraction of the left atrium in terms of pressure?
-produces high pressure in the left atrium
What does high pressure in the left atrium result in? (in terms of valve mechanics and movement)
-the creation of pressure differential between left atrium and left ventricle -pressure differential causes the opening of the tricuspid valve (av valves open towards the ventricles when pressure is high in the atria and low in the ventricles) -blood moves from the left atrium to the left ventricle
What happens as blood moves from the left atrium into the left ventricle?
-wave of excitation spreads through the bundle of his and purkinje fibers into the left ventricle -left ventricle contracts (systole)
What happens to the papillary muscles and the chordae tendinae during ventricular systole? Why?
-papillary muscles are extensions of the ventricular myocardium, so the contract as the ventricles enter systole -as the papillary muscles contract, they pull the chordae tendinae taut
What happens when the chordae tendinae are pulled upon?
-chordae tendinae are tethered to the AV valves -pulling on the chordae tendinae prevents the AV valves from opening into the atria -also seal the cusps of the AV valves shut
What results from the closure of the AV valves?
-based on pressure differences, blood should flow back from the ventricles to the atria when the ventricles are in systole -however, if the AV valves are closed by the chordae tendinae, blood cannot flow backwards into the atria
Since the AV valves are closed during ventricular systole, where must the blood go?
-wherever there is low pressure -only location with low pressure is the aorta
What happens to the aortic semilunar valve when pressure is high in the left ventricle?
-the valve opens
What is the result of the opening of the aortic semilunar valve?
-blood flows from the left ventricle into the aorta
What happens in terms of pressure as soon as blood flows into the aorta?
-pressure drops in the left ventricle -pressure increases in the aorta
Based on pressure differentials, where does the blood want to flow when pressure is low in the left ventricle and high in the aorta?
-back into the left ventricle
What prevents this?
-the aortic semilunar valve
-the cup-shaped cusps fill with blood as movement occurs from the left ventricle to the aorta -filling of the cups closes valves--cups fold inward because of the weight of the blood, sealing the valve
Why doesn't the heart "pump" blood?
-because movement is created as a result of pressure differentials
In a healthy heart, why does the blood always flow in a unidirectional manner?
-because the heart creates pressure differentials that enforce correct flow