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Spanish chapter 12
Terms in this set (47)
Formation of regular past participles
-ar verbs add -ado to stem example: estudiar = estudiado
-er stem + ido comer = comido
-ir stem +ido vivir= viv+ido = vivdo
Expresses a completed action. Used in perfect verb forms. Used as adjectives.
Regular past participle
-er/ir stem ending in -a
-er/ ir stem ending in -e
-er/ir stem ending in -o
an accent mark is needed on the i in -ido (i`do) example: traer --> tra- +i`do= trai`do, creer --> cre- + -i`do = crei`do
Irregular past participles
-do not end in -ado/-ido
-most irregular past participles end in -to
Examples of irregular past participles:
abrir --> abierto
cubrir --> cubierto
descubrir --> descubierto
they drop the final -rir and add the final -to
escribir --> escrito
Some stem-chanign verbs use an irregular stem and end in -to. Examples include morir and volver.
morir --> muerto
volver --> vuelto
Other irregular past participles end in
-sto examples include poner and ver.
Other common verbs like decir and hacer have irregular past particples that end in -cho.
What is the present perfect indicative?
A compound verb tense because it is made up of two verb forms. Haber which is reffered to as an auxillary plus the past participle.
Formation of present prefect indicative using haber
1.) conjuate haber in the present indicative to agree with the subject.
ex: he, has, ha, hemos. habe`is, han.
2.) Add the past participle to express the action that has occured.
Note: When the past participle is used as part of the present perfect, the form of the past participle does not change regardless of the subject.
meaning of acabar de + infinitive
Expression "acabar de + infinitive" expresses the meaning of the English phrase "to have just" plus the meaning of whatever past participle has been selected.
To form the phrase Acabar de + infinitive
1.) Conjugate acabar in the present tense to agree with the subject.
2.) Add de and an infinitive to express the action that has just been done
Note: in english the past participle is used in this construction, spanish always uses the infinitive.
Past participle used as an adjective
must agree in number and gender with the noun that it modifies.
Past participle used after estar
estar + past participle = result of an action. Past participle used after the verb estar is an adjective describing the result of a previous action.
el cajero automa`tico
el contestador automa`tico
el tele`fono inala`mbrico
el correo electro`nico
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