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Ch1, Ch18, Ch17, Ch16, Ch15,


Gradients usually decrease downstream in a major river system.

Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels

How does urbanization (paving, etc.) affect runoff and infiltration in a small, previously forested, drainage basin?

infiltration decreases; runoff increases

Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?

sea level falls; land rises

make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

Silt and clay-sized, detrital grains

describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.


the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ________.


After a meander is cut off, the gradient through the newly formed cutoff is steeper than the gradient along the abandoned meander loop.


A ________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward.


Most precipitation in land areas originates by transpiration and by evaporation from lakes and rivers.


is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

An oxbow

are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

Rapids and lots of whitewater

are components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the atmosphere.

Evaporation and transpiration

________ river has the largest discharge of any in the world.


With the passage of time, deposition and erosion gradually shorten the channel length of a meander loop.


Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?

on the outer parts of the meander loops or bends

Which one of the following would cause stream rejuvenation

the land is uplifted

A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean? What is the average gradient

0.5 m/km

describes the particle transport mode in streams intermediate between suspension and rolling along the bottom?


Which of the following features characterize wide streams and valleys?

natural levees; broad floodplains

Which one of the following materials has the maximum, sustainable, slope angle, as determined by the angle of repose?

dry sand

denotes the exposed, crescent-shaped rupture surface at the head of a slump


How do the strength and cohesion of clay-rich regolith or soil change with the addition of water?

Water lowers the strength and cohesion.

Of the following, which one would most likely be triggered by an earthquake?


Which of the following was a major factor leading to the Gros Ventre, WY slide?

Soils and shallow bedrock were very wet and locally saturated

Lahars are essentially mudflows associated with volcanoes and volcanism.


A triggering mechanism, such as heavy rains or an earthquake, are necessary for mass wasting to occur.


What caused the mudflows (1985) on the Nevado del Ruiz volcano

Hot ash fell onto snow near the summit

Why was the Alaskan pipeline built above ground and insulated?

to protect the pipeline against damage due to thawing ground and to keep the crude oil hot and fluid

Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process?

A block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface

Earthflows and slumps generally involve movement of unconsolidated or weakly consolidated soil and regolith.


Submarine landslides are generally much smaller than similar mass wasting events on land.


Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?


All of the following are factors affecting mass wasting except for ________.

geologic age

The most rapid type of mass movement is a ________.

rock avalanche

As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique from wind, water, and ice

Mass wasting does not require a transporting medium.

Bedding planes and fractures can both act as slip surfaces for rockslides


How do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to soil creep

The soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope

All of the following are possible indicators that creep is occurring except for ________.

an extremely thick soil profile

are much more abundant in mantle rocks than in crustal rocks

Magnesium silicates

Continental crust is generally thicker than oceanic crust.


The ________ is the seismic discontinuity that forms the boundary between the crust and mantle.


The Earth's magnetic field ________.

is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core

The inner core is probably mainly liquid iron because it has the characteristics of a permanent magnet


The Earth's magnetic field originates by ________.

weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core

As P waves pass from the mantle into the outer core, velocities drop abruptly.


High rock temperatures enhance plastic deformation and flow in the asthenosphere and inhibit brittle fracturing


upper part of the lithosphere includes this layer


very dense, solidified, iron-rich alloy

inner core

transmits P waves but not S waves

outer core

the top of this layer is marked by the Mohorovicic discontinuity


includes the asthenosphere


The ________ of the Earth has the smallest volume


The fact that ________ is good evidence for a solidified, inner core

P waves are faster in the inner core than in the outer core

The crust and mantle are solids; the inner core is thought to be solid.


The ________ of the Earth does not transmit S waves.

outer core

are closest to the average chemical composition of the oceanic crust.

basalt and gabbro

Which one of the following best characterizes the asthenosphere?

a zone of softened peridotite in the upper mantle

Which one of the following statements concerning Earth's magnetic field is true?

At high latitudes, the force lines intersect Earth's surface at steep angles.

Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?

The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates

have the highest velocities.

primary waves

Because their energy dissipates rapidly in deep ocean waters, tsunamis seldom pose any danger to coastal areas far away from the causative earthquake.


On a typical seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes.

surface waves

Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?


is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale.


Approximately how often do locked segments of the San Andreas Fault (California) break, resulting in major earthquakes?

once every hundred and fifty years

would result in the largest area of ground shaking damage.

shallow-focus quake along the Mississippi Valley fault zone

The ________ is the point of origination for an earthquake.


Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

30 times

________ is a widely accepted explanation for the mechanism that generates earthquakes.

Reid's elastic rebound theory

What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake


The ________ is used to record ground shaking and the earthquake-magnitude scale was invented by ________.

seismograph; Richter

The ________ earthquake was accompanied by major damage from tsunamis and ground failures

Anchorage, AK, 1964

________ was struck by three, major earthquakes during the winter and spring months of the years 1811-1812.

New Madrid, Missouri

Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis?

They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths.

The ________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage.

San Francisco, 1906

________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.


The ________ is directly related to the Richter earthquake-magnitude rating.

amplitude of the seismic waves

Which one of the following regarding the San Andreas Fault in California is true?

a sliver of continent west of the fault is moving northward with the Pacific plate

is one of the two, major flow mechanism in a glacier

Basal slip

Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today


Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?

Accumulation exceeds wastage.

A ________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.


first developed the theory that small variations in the Earth-Sun distance were responsible for short term, climatic oscillations (1000 to 100,000 years).

M. Milankovitch

Which one of the following samples and experimental measurements would provide the most information about the Earth's climate over the last 100,000 years or so?

cores from the Greenland ice sheet; ratios of the oxygen isotopes (0-18/0-16)

A(n) ________ is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area


A fiord is ________.

a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises

Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?


The ________ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age."

Pleistocene epoch

Which of the following is the correct listing of the North American glacial stages from older to younger?

Nebraskan, Kansan, Illinoian, Wisconsinan

Which one of the following statements concerning glaciers is not true?

Long, extended, alpine glaciers occupied valleys in most high, mountainous areas in the United States, Canada, and Europe at one or more times during the past two million years

A(n) ________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.

hanging valley

________ are both deposited by meltwater streams.

Outwash plains and valley trains

Where is the world's second largest continental ice sheet?


How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?

by calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland

Which of the following best describes the term glacial drift

the sedimentary materials outwash and till

Which one of the following could not have significantly affected climatic variations and advances and retreats of ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch?

movements of Earth's tectonic plates

Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain?

tarn lake

All of the following are thought to possibly contribute to the formation of glaciers except for ________.


The law of superposition applies primarily to sedimentary rocks and lava flows


In sedimentary rocks, lithification includes

Compaction and cementation

The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere.


Aristotle and other prominent Greek philosophers were the first ones to promote the doctrine of uniformitarianism


Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?

any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers

all of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for

assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation

What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface

Laboratory assignment problems will be assessed as part of chapter quizzes


Where can students find the "Course Calendar" for the entire semester?

in the tools link

is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past"


Which one of the following statements is not correct?

Metamorphic rocks may crystalize from magma

The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a


The ______ is the thinnest layer of the Earth


is the process by which rocks breakdown in place to produce soils and sediments


During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, direct observations showed that a glacier in Switzerland flowed forward in the downhill direction while its snout (terminus) was retreating higher up the valley. Which of the following explains these observations in a rational, scientific way?

The melting rate of ice in the glacier exceeded the rate at which new snow and ice were added to the glacier.

_____, a popular natural philosophy of the 17th and early 18th centuries, was based on a firm belief in a very short geologic history for Earth


The asthenosphere is actually a part of the _______ of the Earth


The _____- is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth's interior

outer core

A _____ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations


The _____ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth


In the early part of the 20th century, _____ argued forcefully for continental drift

Alfred Wegener

The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as


Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with a ______ plate boundary


Deep-focus earthquakes, those between 300 and 700 kilometers below the surface, occur only in association with

subduction zones

Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as

normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge

All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for

assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation

In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?


Refer to the lab text, page 22, #6 f, 1.3 liters = ________cm3


Refer to lab text, page 22 # 14, How is the distribution of Earth's spheres related to their densities?

Less dense spheres are located above more dense spheres

Refer to lab text, page 29 # 24, How is a mountain like the iceberg in Figure 1.16B?

Due to isostatic rebound, both the mountain and the iceburg will "float" higher if their mass decreases caused by erosion or melting

Refer to lab text, page 34 # 1, What type of fault would likely occur in association with a convergent boundary? (Hint: consider the type of stress)

reverse fault

Refer to the lab text, page 34 # 20, What main kind of faulting and plate boundary would you expect to occur in Earth's thin, egg-shell-like lithosphere if Earth's outer shell fractures but there is no expansion or shrinking of its size?

strike-slip (lateral) fault

What is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition?

a mineral

Minerals are classified by


is the process by which rocks breakdown in place to produce soils and sediments.


Which one of the following statements is not correct?

Metamorphic rocks may crystalize from magma.

The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as


The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a

continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate

What volcanic events formed Crater Lake, OR? When did they take place?

Caldera collapse followed major ash and pyroclastic-flow eruptions: 6000 years ago.

A _________ is an intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant.


Refer to Page 41 # 14a, Examine the cross section of a plate boundary in figure 2.9B. What kind of plate boundary is this?

Oceanic-Continental Convergent

Refer to Page 42 #15c, How does the rate of Pacific plate movement during the past 1.6 million years differ from the older (4.7-1.6my) rate of plate motion.

The plate motion has sped up in the past 1.6 million years.

Refer to Page 44 #16a, What direction is the North American Plate moving according to Anders' data?


New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at

divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not

identify a mechanism capable of moving continents

The Columbia Plateau in Washington and Oregon is

a flood basalt plateau.

Which kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive?

Eruptions of big, continental margin, composite cones or stratovolcanoes

Which of the following minerals is in the mineral group known as mica?


The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.


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