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Hershey and chase did an experiment on viruses where they could tell that DNA is the genetic material in cells and not protein
Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins write about the structure of DNA; received the Nobel Prize in 1960
Nucleic acid (DNA)
made form nucleotides which are constructed from phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous bases (A,T, G, C)
has a phosphate, sugar backbone double stranded rung shaped base, and is twisted into a helix
strands held together by weak bonds of hydrogen bases
A-T, G-C; 5 prime end has free phosphates; 3 prime end has sugar; replication is always ordered as '5' before '3'
DNA is unwound and replication happens in both directions; happens during the S phase
primase (RNA polymerase) makes a short strand of RNA primer to help the building of the DNA copy
the top strand of original DNA; a simple process of laying down a primer and DNA polymer which houses up appropriate nucleotides
DNA is then built
DNA strand built in the opposite direction
it creates a section then leaps to the other end to finish
the primers (RNA) is removed and replaced by DNA polymerase; gap left from RNA replacement so DNA ligase stitches the fragments together
non-coding DNA strands at the end of chromosomes( not part of gene) protects chromosomes from deterioration
Transcription: first step to Protein Synthesis
the making of a messenger RNA(mRNA) form a DNA template
takes place in the nucleus and makes a pre-mRNA
Translation: second step to Protein Synthesis
makes a polypeptide chain from a mRNA template
changes a nucleotide code into a polypeptide code
takes place at the ribosome in the cytoplasm
First stage: Transcription in prokaryotes-Initiation
Promoter-DNA sequence that signals the start of transcription
RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, it then unwinds the DNA
Second stage: Transcription in prokaryotes- Elongation
RNA polymerase adds nucleotides (A, G, U, C); continues to unwind DNA; Builds the RNA in the 5 prime-3prime pattern; no primers are needed for the process; makes many mRNA's on one DNA strand
Last stage: Transcription in prokaryotes- Termination
the DNA sequence polymerase drops off, then the creation of the mRNA is done
Transcription in eukaryotes- Initiation
Transcription factors are necessary to RNA polymerase to bind to promoters
i.e. TATA Box, Transcription Initiation Complex
Transcription in eukaryotes- Termination
polyadenylation signal- DNA sequence that ends transcription
is code for many A's (adenines) in a row
the RNA is cut from the polymerase and becomes pre-mRNA
alternations of the ends of the pre-mRNA
5prime end has '5' cap added for modified G nucleotide
3 prime end has a poly-A tail added to it; sometimes has hundreds of Adenine nucleotides
transfer RNA; has amino acid binding site on one end and anti-codon on the other end; brings amino acids to the polypeptide
Aminoacyl tRNA synthase
the attachment of an amino acid to the RNA with the assistance of ATP and enzymes; is a tRNA wit an amino acid attached to it
enzymes that have two sub-units; a large sub-unit and a small sub-unit; each has a binding site; the large and small sub-units stay separate until translation begins
the mRNA, tRNA, and both ribosomal units come together; creates a translation initiation complex
amino acids are added to the mRNA chain one by one
A new tRNA binds to the A-site of the ribosomal, the amino acid binds to the chain in the P-site, the tRNA moves to the next site, and the old tRNA is kicked off; this process goes in one direction
stop codon(UAG, UAA, or UGA) begins at this point; the release factor binds to the stop codons and the whole translation initiation complex falls apart
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