Importance of Latin West
many achievements; emerged from economic and cultural shadow of Islamic neighbors
Crops grown in two thirds of the field, other third left grew oats
Importance of black death
Wiped out 1/3 of European population; job openings, ended surfism
Used flow of water to turn wheels
an association of trading cities
association of craft specialists
architectural wonders of their times; huge cathedrals
"Rebirth"; intellectual and artistic renewal.
degree-granting corporations specializing in multidisciplinary research and advanced teaching
synthesized reason and faith
Intrist in grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy
Importance of Humanists
focused on the individual
A mechanical device that pressed inked type onto sheets of paper
Importance of printing press
allowed fast and easy reproduction of books and papers
Great Western Schism
rival papal claimants at Avigon vs papal claimants in Rome
Importance of GWS
further eroded papal authority
Hundred years war
King of France vs vassals
Importance of HYW
first use of cannon; Joan of Arc
more centralized power, more fixed national boundaries and stronger representative institutions
reconquest of Iberia
Spanish drove Muslim rule back
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