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69 terms

A&P Chapter 14

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alimentary canal
continuous, coiled, hollow, muscular tube that winds through the ventral body cavity and is open at both ends
mouth
a mucuous membrane-lined cavity where food enters the digestive tract
uvula
a fleshy fingerlike projection of the soft palate which extends downward from its posterior edge
vestibule
the space between the lips and cheeks externally and the teeth and gums internally
linguinal frenulum
a fold of mucous membrane which secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements
esophagus
a passageway that conducts food to the stomach and runs from the pharynx to the stomach
mucosa
innermost layer of the alimentary canal organs; a moist membrane that lines the cavities of the alimentary canal organs
submucosa
soft CT layer containing blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodules, and lymphatic vessels
muscularis externa
muscle layer made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
serosa
outermost layer of the alimentary canal organs; consists of visceral and parietal peritoneum
submucosal nerve plexus
nerve plexus in the submucosa
myenteric nerve plexus
nerve plexus in the muscularis externa
cardioesophageal sphincter
valve between esophagus and stomach
pyloric sphincter
valve exiting the stomach
rugae
large folds of the stomach
greater curvature
convex lateral surface of the stomach
lesser curvature
concave medial surface of the stomach
lesser omentum
double layer of peritoneum which attaches the lesser curvature to the liver
greater omentum
attaches greater curvature to the body wall
gastric juice
solution secreted from the gastric glands
chief cells
produce protein digesting enzymes
parietal cells
produce hydrochloric acid which makes the stomach contents acidic and activated the enzymes
chyme
what food is after it has been processed in the stomach; resembles heavy cream
ileocecal valve
the valve at the end of the small intestine
duodenum
1st area of the small intestines that is attached to the stomach and curves around the head of the pancreas
jejunum
attaches to the duodenum; middle part of small intestines
ileum
final part of the small intestines that attaches the jejunum to the large intestines
microvilli
tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the mucosa cells cells that give the cell surface a fuzzy appearance
lacteal
a modified lymphatic capillary in each villus
circular folds (plicae circulares)
deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa layers of the small intestines; these folds do not disappear when you eat a lot
cecum
sac-like 1st area of large intestines
appendix
accumulated lymphatic tissue that hangs from the cecum
colon
major part of the large intestine
rectum
descending portion of the colon which ends in the anal canal
anus
opening to the exterior
salivary glands
glands that empty their secretions into the mouth
salivary amylase
enzyme in the clear serous portion that begins the process of starch digestion in the mouth
parotid glands
glands that lie anterior to the ears
masticate
chewing. opening and closing of our jaws and moving them from side to side while using the tongue to move the food between our teeth
deciduous (baby/milk) teeth
first set of teeth that appear around 6 months old
permanent teeth
second set of teeth that all erupt by the end of adolescence
incisors
chisel-shaped teeth adapted for cutting
canines
fanglike teeth for tearing or piercing
premolars
teeth in front of the molars used for grinding food
molars
teeth that have a broad crown with rounded cusps specialized in the grinding of food
crown
covered with enamel and is the exposed part of the tooth above the gum
root
portion of the tooth embedded in the jawbone
neck
the region where the root and crown are connected
falciform ligament
the delicate mesentery cord that suspends the liver from the diaphragm and the abdominal wall
bile
yellow-to-green watery solution containing bile salts, pigments, cholesterol, phospholipids, and electrolytes
common hepatic duct
where bile leaves the liver
gall bladder
small, thin-walled green sac that snuggles in a shallow fossa in the inferior surface of the liver
cystic duct
where bile backs up when food digestion is not occurring
ingestion
active, voluntary process of placing food into the mouth
propulsion
movement of food from one organ to the next
peristalsis
involuntary action involving alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the organ wall
segmentation
moves food back and forth across the internal wall of the organ, serving to mix it with the digestive juices
defecation
elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces
deglutition
swallowing. has three phases: buccal, pharyngeal, esophageal
buccal phase
1st phase of swallowing where food is forced into the pharnyx by the tongue
pharyngeal-esophageal phase
2nd phase of swallowing where food is transported through the pharynx and esophagus
gastrin
hormone that prods the stomach glands to produce more of the protein-digesting enzymes, mucus, and hydrochloric acid
brush border enzymes
break down double sugars into simple sugars and complete protein digestion
pancreatic juice
contains digestive enzymes and bicarbonate to neutralize acid
secretin
hormone that influences release of pancreatic juice and bile
cholecystokinin (CCK)
hormone that influences release of pancreatic juice and bile
feces
more or less solid product delivered to the rectum that contains undigested food residues, mucus, and bacteria
mass movements
long, slow-moving but powerful contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon three or four times daily and force the contents toward the rectum
defecation reflex
spinal reflex that causes the walls of the sigmoid colon and the rectum to contract and the anal sphincters to relax