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most common cause of a protuberant abdomen; thickens the abdominal wall, the mesentery, and the omentum; umbilicus may seem sunken


apron of fatty tissue that may extend below the inguinal ligaments


distention may be localized or generalized; causes a tympanitic percussion note


can be produced from certain foods

more serious causes are intestinal obstruction and adynamic (paralytic) ileus


true or false: in a protuberant abdomen distended by gas, distention becomes more marked in colonic than in small bowel obstruction


large, usually rises out of pelvis, and dull to percussion; air-filled bowel is displaced to the periphery


causes include ovarian tumors and uterine myomata; occasionally a distended bladder can be mistaken for this.


common cause of a "pelvic" mass

ascitic fluid

seeks the lowest point in the abdomen, producing bulging flanks that are dull to percussion; the umbilicus may protrude

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