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Early supercontinent made up of Africa, S. America and Antarctica


700my-250my when N. America collided with Eurasia


Lived in Antarctica, India and South Africa and old school land dino / used to prove continental drift


Lived in S. America and S. Africa / freshwater reptile / used to prove continental drift


Found in all Southern continents / used to prove continental drift


Location in Britain where the Mountain chains from long ago were connected

Coal fields in N. America

Climatological proof for the earth not being in a complete ice age

sea floor spreading

created by Harry Hess / driving force for continental drift / evidence of tectonics


evidence of tectonics / normal or reverse

earthquake and volcanic activity

tectonics evidence / plate boundaries

oceanic divergent boundary

Age of rock is younger the nearer to the boundary

Deepest trench

Formed with a fast moving oceanic-oceanic convergence

Aleutian Islands

subduction zone / volcanic arc / differing ages

Seismic moment scale

amplitude x area x rock brittleness


70 km below surface / seismic wave speed increase / boundary between crust and mantle

Shadow zone

Only surface waves occur


An alternative way to study the core

Elastic rebound

H.F. Reid


supercontinent 700 mya


supercontinent 300 mya


plate tectonics / continental drift

normal fault

tensional / hanging wall falls

reverse fault

compressional / hanging wall rises

P wave

fastest / body wave / will travel through solid, liquid and gas

S wave

sheer wave / will only travel through solid


exposed rock from a fault






field instrument

L wave

love wave / side to side / surface wave

R wave

raleigh wave / circle wave / comes at you / surface wave

Mercalli Scale

I-XII / damage, what people feel

Richter Scale

0-9.9 / magnitude/energy / logarithmic / every one point is 32x more energy


"quicksand" / ground "liquifies" / buildings sink

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