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285 terms

AFAA Personal Trainer Certification Study Guide

Myocardial Infarction
Hear attack occurs due to lack of blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle
lack of blood flow
Stroke Volume
the amount of blood pumped with each beat or systole
Cardiac Output
heart rate x stroke volume. usually measured in liters (or milileters) of blood pumped per minute
Venous Return
The amount of blood returned to the heart by the veins
Valsalva Maneuver
occurs when a person holds his or her breath during a strenuous activity, such as lifting weights or shoveling snow
Minute Ventilation
total amount of air breathed per minute
Residual lung volume
amount of air remaining in the lungs after a complete and total forced exhale
Forced vital capacity
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a maximal inahle
Total lung capacity
sum of the residual volume and the forced vital capacity
body's usable form of carbohydrate
Lactic Acid
produced in muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
a subcellular structure where oxidation takes place
Beta oxidation
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.
Krebs cycle
the acetyl CoA formed in the first component of aerobic metabolism enters into the citric acid cycle
Electron transport system
the final sequence of reactions in the aerobic production of ATP
Maximal oxygen uptake
the maximum amount of oxygen consumed and utilized by the body during an all-out effort to exhaustion
Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption
additional oxygen consumed immediately after an exercise bout when the body is no longer exercising
each section of a myofibril in muscle
structural protein that makes up the thin filaments of myofibrils; functions in muscle contraction
Anatomical Position
standing position with hands down and palms facing forward
lying on the spine
lying face down
Axial Skeleton
part of the skeleton that contains skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
Synovial joints
have a small space between the articulating bones that allows for a greater range of motion
a white, semi-opaque, fibrous connective tissue that cushions the joints and prevents wear on the joint surfaces
Synovial membrane
secretes synovial fluid which provides nourishment, lubrication, and hydrotastic cushioning for the joint
liquid-filled membranes that protect soft tissues as they pass by bony projections
band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone and provides joint stability.
dense, fibrous connective tissue that forms the end of a muscle and attaches muscle to bone
fibrous connective tissue that forms sheaths for individual muscles.
Circuit Weight Training
resistance exercises performed one after the other without rest for approximately 20 minutes
Muscular Strength
maximum force a muscle or muscle group can generate at one time
Muscle Endurance
capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions, as in push-ups or sit ups, or sustain fixed, static muscle actions for an extended period of time
Muscle Power
explosive aspect of strength, is the product of strength and speed of movement
Muscle Stability
ability of a muscle or muscle group to stabilize a joint and maintain its position without movement. (to perform a sustained isometric contraction)
Muscle hypertrophy
an increase in the muscle fiber size, specifically an increased cross-sectional area resulting from increased myofibrilis
Overload Principle
increasing the intensity (resistance), frequency, or duration of the training above the levels normally expected
specific adaptions in the metabolic and neuromuscular systems depending on the type of program or exercises that are performed
total number of repetitions performed multiplied by the total amount of weight, or resistance, used during a single training session. (Reps x Weight = Volume)
Progressive resistance exercise
resistance must be gradually, progressively increased as the muscles adapt to a given exercise
variations in the training program over the course of several months or a year, that help to improve performance and prevent injury, staleness, and burnout
a point where further increases in strength become difficult and progress seems to stop
Single-Set System
basic system ( one set 8-12 reps for each muscle group) that is widely recommended and used for beginners and those interested in an effective, time efficient workout
Multiple-Set system
consists of 3 to 6 sets of an exercise, usually the same weight load throughout
Super-Set System
any combination of 2 different exercises immediately following one another without a rest
Tri-Set System
3 different exercises immediately following one another
Dynamic Constant Resistance
external resistance or weight that does not vary through the range of motion
Dynamic Variable Resistance
attempts to match the external resistance to the exerciser's strength curve. Strength varies throughout the range of motion of each muscle
Isokinetic Resistance
maintains constant muscle tension at a steady speed or velocity
ability to maintain a position without moving for a certain period of time, and can also be defined as a state of bodily equilibrium
Isometric Resistance Training
involves contracting a muscle in a held position, usually against a wall, weight machine, or against another part of the body
Core Exercise
any exercise that is multi-joint and recruits one or more large muscle groups or areas with the synergistic help of one or more smaller muscle groups
Core Training
refers to the center of the body. Incorporates stabilization exercises for muscles of the spine, neck, pelvis, and scapulae
Plyometric Training
involves using the stretch reflex to increase muscle fiber recruitment. (squat jumps, tuck jumps, medicine ball passes)
shoulder blades
Acute Muscle Soreness
occurs during and immediately after exercise and is due to the accumulation of lactate, decreased oxygen, and tissue swelling within the muscle
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
A temporary muscle soreness and stiffness that occur 24 to 48 hours after performing unaccustomed eccentric muscle contractions and last for three to four days.
Alignment Cue
clearly state which joints are moving and which are still
Safety Cue
lets client know about a potential injury risk and how it can be minimized
Breathing Cue
remind your clients to breathe
Visual Cue
demonstrating a move
Motivational Cue
motivational cues such as "You can do it!" and "Great Job!"
Wrong/Right Cue
help kinesthetically feel when they are in alignment and using proper form. Showing the correct and incorrect way of doing something.
range of motion possible around a joint, or around a series of joints
Ballistic Stretching
characterized by bouncing, pulsing, rapid, or uncontrolled-type movements
Static Stretching
low-intensity, long-duration muscle elongation; ideally in a supported position that allows the muscle fibers to relax
Active (unassisted) Stretching
static or ballistic, performed alone, using the concentric contraction of the opposing muscles
Passive (assisted) Stretching
stretch is initiated by another person or outside force and the person being stretched is passive
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
flexibility technique that promotes or hastens the neuromuscular response through stimulation of the proprioceptors
Ligament Laxity
results from being born with ligaments that have a higher degree of elastic properties. "double jointed"
Acute Injury
sudden onset due to a specific trauma, such as twisting the ankle
Chronic Injury
excessive, repeated stress is placed on one area of the body over an extended period of time, the affected tissues may begin to fail
Muscle sTrain
overstretching, overexertion, or overuse of soft tissue, less severe than a sprain. May occur from a slight trauma or unaccustomed repeated trauma
usually caused by a severe s tress, stretch or tear of the soft tissues such as ligaments or joint capsules
an incomplete or partial dislocation that often involves secondary trauma to the surrounding tissue
displacement of a bony part of a joint that leads to soft tissue damage, inflammation, pain, and muscle spasm
Muscle/Tendon Rupture or Tear
with a partial tear, pain is felt when the muscle is stretched or contracted against resistance. With a complete tear, muscle is incapable of working
inflammation of a tendon leading to scarring or calcium deposits
inflammation of a synovial membrane; an excessive amount of synovial fluid
inflammation of a bursa
bruising from a direct blow, resulting in capillary rupture, bleeding, and inflammation
abnormal adherance of collagen fibers to surrounding tissues during immobilization or after an injury, resulting in a loss of normal elasticity
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Prime mover, or the contracting muscle that is responsible for the movement that you see
Muscle that works (opposite) to the prime mover and reflexively elongates to allow the agonist to contract and move the joint
Body Composition
refers to the percentage of weight that is fat and is based on the assumption that body weight can be divided into various components
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
caused by mechanical compression, which results in reduced blood flow to the median nerve
Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral
Carotid Artery
located at the larnyx of neck, used for measuring heart rate
further from the trunk, situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone
Eccentric Training
Also called negative resistance training, is a muscular action in which the muscle lengthens in a controlled manner.
Concentric Training
exerting more force than is placed on it, results in shortening of muscle
shoulder - structure: synovial; ball and socket function:diarthrotic ROM:multiaxial flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation
Slow Twitch Fibers
slow to fatigue and have a high level of aerobic endurance, used for long-term, low to moderate intensity activities ranging from maintaining proper posture to long-distance running
Fast Twitch Fibers
poor aerobic endurance, short-duration, high-intense activities and fatigue quickly
sense the degree of tension and the length of the muscle
joint angle diminishing, most movements are forward movements
return from flexion, movement that increases the angle between 2 bones
movement around an axis or pivot point
movement in which an extremity describes a circle (360 degrees)
Horizontal Plane (transverse)
divides the body into upper and lower portions. Rotation occurs within the horizontal plane
Frontal Plane (coronal)
divides the body into front and back. Abduction and Adduction occur within the frontal plane
Sagittal Plane (medial)
divides the body into right and left portions. Flexion and extension occur within the sagittal plane
a point at which 2 or more bones meet and where movement occurs
Cervical Spine
the first seven vertebrae, or the neck
Thoracic Spine
12 vertebrae, where the ribs attach
Lumbar Spine
5 vertebrae, lower back
Sacral Spine
fused to form the sacrum
bone formed from five vertebrae fused together near the base of the spinal column
Coccygeal Spine
4 vertebrae, fused to form the tailbone
hip flexors
Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus
consists of 4 muscles: vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vestus intermedius, rectus femoris
Talocrural Joint
hinge, synovial,distal tibia, fibular form mortise for trochlea of talus, primary motions are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion,
Subtalar Joint
Ankle eversion and Ankle inversion
Ankle Dorsiflexion
bring top of the foot toward the shin
Ankle Plantar Flexion
bring soles of the foot downward (pointing toes)
Ankle Eversion
Pronation. Arch flattens
Ankle Inversion
Supination, Arch lifts
muscle actions performed on special equipment in which speed is controlled
First Class Lever
fulcrum is in between the applied force and resistance. example = see-saw
Second Class Lever
fulcrum or axis is at the end of the lever, resistance is in the middle, applied force at the opposite end. example = wheelbarrow
Third Class Lever
axis as one end, applied force in the middle and resistance at the opposite end. example = using a hammer to drive a nail into a piece of wood
Radial Artery
artery of the lower arm. It is felt when taking the pulse at the wrist.
systolic = 120-1389 mmHG diastolic = 80-89 mmHg
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
Optimal Blood Pressure
systolic <120 diastolic<80
Systolic pressure
amount of pressure or force exerted against the arterial walls immediately after the heart has contracted
Diastolic pressure
amount of pressure still remaining against the arterial walls as the heart relaxes before the next contraction
opposing muscles of the biceps
Anterior and Medial Deltoids
opposing muscles of the posterior deltoid, mid-trapezius and rhomboids
opposing muscles of the erector spinae
Erector Spinae
extends the back, provides resistance and helps us bend over at the waist
Hip Abductors
works the muscles on the outer part of the upper thigh muscles, A muscle that draws a body part away from the midline or axis of the body.
Hip Adductors
Works the muscles on the inside of the thigh (groin muscles)., Inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity.
ITB syndrome
an overuse injury, typically caused by a tight iliotibial band. The band is aggravated by excessive or abnormal rotational movements of the femur and tibia by walking or running
the longest and thickest bone, upper leg bone
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
Adenosine Triphosphate
molecule found in every cell of the body that is composed of adenosine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups. It is the form in which food energy is stored in your cells
Phosphagen System
supplies energy very quickly and is the primary source of energy for very high-intensity exercise
Anaerobic Glycolytic System
Glucose is used for fuel and is either blood glucose or muscle glycogen, broken down in to pyruvic acid, when there is insufficient oxygen it then is transformed into lactic acid
Aerobic Energy System
virtually unlimited capacity for making ATP, uses carbs, fat, protein for fuel. Slow to produce ATP
Anaerobic Threshold
when work becomes so intense, muscle cells cannot supply the additional energy and rely more on the anaerobic system to produce ATP. At this level, lactic acid begins to accumulate
Skeletal Muscle
A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones.
Smooth Muscle
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
Cardiac Muscle
forms the walls of the heart
Sensory Neurons
bring messages back to the brain and spinal cord from the muscles, skin and other areas of the body
Motor Neurons
send messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles causing a neuromuscular response
Appendicular Skeleton
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones, , the portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it
hands upward
hands downward
Tennis Elbow
painful inflammation of the tendon at the outer border of the elbow resulting from overuse of lower arm muscles (as in twisting of the hand)
Golfer's Elbow
Inflammation and pain of the flexor and pronator muscles of the forearm where their tendons originate on the medial epicondyle of the humerus; Epicondylitis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
widespread pain in joints, muscles, ligaments, heightened pain at "Tender" points
premature bone thining, with a bone density of 1-2.5 standard deviation units below average
Preipheral Artery Disease
condition of atherosclerosis in the extremities, primarly affecting the calves.
Parkinson's Disease
disorder of the nervous system, specifically of the basal ganglia, a mass nerve of cells in the brain that is responsible for motor functions
Simple Carbohydrates
sugars, fruits and vegetables, lactose from milk, cane or beet sugar
Complex Carbohydrates
carrots, broccoli, corn, potatoes, bread, cereal, pasta, rice and beans
Glycemic Index
carbohydrate ranking developed to help define which carbohydrate foods may or may not contribute to the insulin surge and eventual resistance problem
primarily indigestible type of carbohydrate found in fresh fruits, vegetables and grains
Soluble fiber
fruits, vegetables, seeds, brown rice, barley and oats. Appears to lower blood cholesterol levels and retard the entry of glucose into the bloodstream
Insoluble fiber
includes cellulose, found in whole grains, outside of seeds, fruits, legumes. Promotes more efficient elimination may play a role in colon cancer prevention
Complete Protein
animal or fish based foods that supply essential amino acids
Incomplete Protein
lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. Generally from plants, fruits, grains, vegetables
main type of fat found in the diet and in adipose tissue. Desirable serum levels are under 150 mg/dl
Saturated Fats
primarily from animal sources, butter, whole milk dairy products, meat.
Monounsaturated Fat
shown to reduce LDL cholesterol without affecting the beneficial HDL cholesterol. Good sources = canola oil, peanut oil, avocado oil
Polyunsaturated Fat
divided into omega-6 vegetable oils and omega-3 fish oils.
HDL cholesterol
"good" blood cholesterol, helps remove plaque from the arterial walls, returning it to the liver. 60 mg/dl or more
LDL cholesterol
"bad" blood cholesterol, delivers plaque to the arterial walls. < 100 mg/dl
non-caloric, organic compounds that the human body cannot produce on it's own
neither vitamins or minerals. They are substances that plants manufacture to protect themselves from viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects and drought.
Nutrition Density
concept of eating foods that are very nutritious relative to the number of calories
Low Nutrition Density
high in fat, sugar, refined carbohydrates, alcohol
High Nutrition Density
papaya, peppers, wheat bran, bell peppers, greens, skim milk
Glycemic Load
calculated by multiplying the grams of carbohydrates by the glycemic index
Carbohydrate Loading
pre-event practice used by endurance athletes to maximally load their muscles with stored glycogen
Hitting the Wall
having an inadequate supply of glycogen (Carbs) for muscular work. Makes for excessive fatigue and a desire to quit
inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, leading to light-headedness, lack of coordination and weakness
Anorexia Nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Female Athlete Triad
amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems
Adipose Tissue
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
Resting Metabolic Rate
accounts for 60-75% of daily expenditure and is higher in individuals with a high percentage of lean body mass
Lean Body Mass
structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bones, and other organs (anything that is not fat)
inner confidence that a person has that he or she will be able to accomplish a task
Approach Goals
yield more positive results because positive outcomes are emphasised often yielding happy moments
Avoidance Goals
may result in anxiety, depression, and less enjoyment, even if the goal is achieved
Resting Heart Rate
Obtained first thing in the morning when you are completely relaxed but conscious, before getting out of bed
Resting Blood Pressure
What test may require that it can only be taken by licensed health care providers?
opposing muscles of the triceps
opposing muscles of the biceps
anterior medial deltoids
opposing muscles of the latissimus dorsi
latissmus dorsi
opposing muscles of the anterior medial deltoids
pectoralis major
opposing muscles of the posterior deltoid, mid-trapezius, and rhomboids
opposing muscles of the erector spinae
opposing muscles of the hamstrings
hip abductors
opposing msucles of the hip adductors
How many risk factors are associated with the ACSM Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors?
1. Men >45 Women >55
Family History
2.Myocardial Infarction, Sudden death before 55 of father, 65 of mother
Cigarette Smoking
3. Current smoker, or quit 6 months prior
Sedentary Lifestyle
4. not participating in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity 3 x a week
fasting plasma glucose >100 mg
Health Risk Factor
any factor that increases the chance that an individual will develop a disease or condition
Medical History Form
helps identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal or other potential problems
How many components are associated with a Fitness Assessment?
advantages of max tests
large amount of information gathered, actual measurement of a person's ability at a high level
disadvantages of max tests
needs special, expensive equipment, riskier due to potential abnormal heart waves
submaximal exercise test
assess the client's functional aerobic fitness, show improvement of that level over time, help develop an appropriate level of exercise intensity
advantages of submax tests
less expensive, less risky, less specialized equipment is required, testing personnel does not have to be as highly trained or qualified
disadvantages of subxmax tests
less information is obtained, only estimated and not actually achieved
Behaviors that minimize diseases and disabilities
in identifying risk factors
One professional role of a personal fitness trainer is to assist clients:
What is the term that is defined by incorporating skill-related, health-related, and physiologic components?
use visualization
In wellness, a physical method used to break the stress/tension cycle is to:
What percent of your diet per day should be carbohydrates?
How many servings of fruits and vegetables per day?
How many servings of whole grains should you eat per day?
3 components of energy expenditure
Resting Metabolic Rate, Energy expended with exertion, the thermic effect of food
What is the primary indigestible type of carbohydrate found in fresh fruits, vegetables and grains?
In general, the ______ muscles are worked first
slow twitch
Which muscle fiber type is predominantly used during endurance events? (marathons)
transverse abdominals
What primary muscle has no actual joint action?
leg press
What is one example of a closed kinetic chain exercise?
closed kinetic chain
feet stationary but able to move upper body. Touching a nonmovable surface-distal end stationary proximal end moves
open kinetic chain
When the distal end of an extremity is not fixed to any surface, allowing any one joint in the extremity to move or function separately without necessitating movement of other joints in the extremity.
Diabetes mellitus
a condition of abnormal use of glucose usually caused by too little insulin or lack of response to insulin
Recovery Heart Rate
the heart rate of an individual 3 to 5 minutes after a workout. Should be around 100 beats per minute. If any higher, then more conditioning is needed. Body is not recovering fast enough., the gradual return of the heart rate to resting levels within 5-10 minutes of a session of normal cardiovascular physical activity or exercise
Target Heart Rate
the approximate heart rate a person needs to maintain during aerobic exercise in order to benefit from the workout; target heart rate for teens: 145-170
Personal trainers should make sure that the caliper is ______ to the skinfold
shoulder girdle
The trapezius moves the:
Lateral Rotation
rotate outward, away from the midline (Supination)
Medial Rotation
rotates inward, towards the middle of the body (Pronation)
Rate of perceived exertion
subjective measure of intensity level of an activity using a numerical scale
Heart Rate Reserve
The difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate
Maximum Heart Rate
The heart's maximum working capacity. To find maximum heart rate = subtract age from 220 Examples: 220 - 14 = 206
Oxygenated blood flows from the heart through the:
each of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood that comes into the heart
Each of the two lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart
airway resistance increases making it difficult to breathe
Piriformis syndrome
Excessive use of the gluteal muscles in some athletes (e.g., ice skaters, cyclists, rock climbers) can lead to hypertrophy or spasm of the piriformis muscle, which can compress the sciatic nerve. In individuals with a proximal split of the sciatic nerve (~12%), the common fibular nerve can become compressed as it passes through piriformis.
How many calories are in 1 gram of fat?
How many calories are in 1 gram of protein?
How many calories are in 1 gram of carbohydrate?
calculate protein needs
1. body weight x .45 =body weight in kg
2. body weight kg x .8
Protein is digested into how many amino acids?
people in this stage are not even thinking about a new behavior pattern. Unmotivated, resistant and engage in avoidance tactics
during this stage individuals are seriously considering change but still are not ready to initiate new behaviors
individuals in this stage are preparing to change. May call a health club, buy an exercise video
people are actively changing their behavior in this stage.
this is the stage that sustains long-term ongoing consciousness of the new behavior and successful integration of it into the lifestyle
transtheorectical model
5 stages in the change process, precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
barriers to exercise
lack of access to exercise, expense of exercise, depression and lethargy, multiple health problems, fear of injury, history of sedentary lifestyle
Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic/relevant, Timed
6 dimensions of wellness
Emotional, Social, Intellectual, Spiritual, Physical, Occupational
aerobic system
Which energy system uses glucose, fat and protein for fuel?
Motor unit
A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls
Golgi tendon organ
proprioceptor protects the muscle from excessive shortening or lengthening
rotator cuff muscles
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
muscle spindle
Lie parallel to the muscle fibers; detect changes in muscle length and speed
sit and reach test
trunk flexion test primarily measures the flexibility of the hamstring and erector spinae muscles, as well as the calf and upper back muscles
excessive lordosis
Swayback or increase in secondary curvature
excessive kyphosis
Hunchback or increase in primary curvature
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)
3-4 months
How often is it recommended to reassess fitness?
Karvonen formula
aka max heart rate reserve method; training HR = max HR - resting HR X target intensity (40/50-85%) + resting HR
exercises that isolate large muscles first, prior to exercises that work both large and small muscles simultaneously
sliding filament theory
widely accepted theory of muscle shortening during contraction, thick & thin filaments slide past one another
overtraining symptoms
decline in physical performance, elevated blood pressure, muscle tenderness and joint soreness, loss of muscle strength, loss of motivation to exercise
meniscus tears
cartilage tears caused by traumatic blows ot the knees, and by bending and straightening the knee to far
shin splints
pain in the shin due to repetitive impac loading activities
teres major
Medially rotates and adducts the arm
phosphagen system
If the activity can be sustained for no more than 15-20 seconds then the _____ is the primary source of energy
anaerobic glycolytic system
This system provides much of the energy for sustained, high-intensity things such as:soccer, field hockey, ice hockey, lacrosse, basketball, volleyball, tennis
muscular fitness
term used to describe the relationship between Muscular Strength & Muscular Endurance
muscular flexibility
the achievable range of motion at a joint or group of joints without causing injury
judged according to muscle hypertrophy, definition, and symmetry.
power lifting
compete in 3 lifts: bench press, squat, dead lift
olympic lifting
compete in the clean and jerk