hinge, synovial,distal tibia, fibular form mortise for trochlea of talus, primary motions are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion,
Ankle eversion and Ankle inversion
bring top of the foot toward the shin
Ankle Plantar Flexion
bring soles of the foot downward (pointing toes)
Pronation. Arch flattens
Supination, Arch lifts
muscle actions performed on special equipment in which speed is controlled
First Class Lever
fulcrum is in between the applied force and resistance. example = see-saw
Second Class Lever
fulcrum or axis is at the end of the lever, resistance is in the middle, applied force at the opposite end. example = wheelbarrow
Third Class Lever
axis as one end, applied force in the middle and resistance at the opposite end. example = using a hammer to drive a nail into a piece of wood
artery of the lower arm. It is felt when taking the pulse at the wrist.
systolic = 120-1389 mmHG diastolic = 80-89 mmHg
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
Optimal Blood Pressure
systolic <120 diastolic<80
amount of pressure or force exerted against the arterial walls immediately after the heart has contracted
amount of pressure still remaining against the arterial walls as the heart relaxes before the next contraction
opposing muscles of the biceps
Anterior and Medial Deltoids
opposing muscles of the posterior deltoid, mid-trapezius and rhomboids
opposing muscles of the erector spinae
extends the back, provides resistance and helps us bend over at the waist
works the muscles on the outer part of the upper thigh muscles, A muscle that draws a body part away from the midline or axis of the body.
Works the muscles on the inside of the thigh (groin muscles)., Inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity.
an overuse injury, typically caused by a tight iliotibial band. The band is aggravated by excessive or abnormal rotational movements of the femur and tibia by walking or running
the longest and thickest bone, upper leg bone
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
molecule found in every cell of the body that is composed of adenosine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups. It is the form in which food energy is stored in your cells
supplies energy very quickly and is the primary source of energy for very high-intensity exercise
Anaerobic Glycolytic System
Glucose is used for fuel and is either blood glucose or muscle glycogen, broken down in to pyruvic acid, when there is insufficient oxygen it then is transformed into lactic acid
Aerobic Energy System
virtually unlimited capacity for making ATP, uses carbs, fat, protein for fuel. Slow to produce ATP
when work becomes so intense, muscle cells cannot supply the additional energy and rely more on the anaerobic system to produce ATP. At this level, lactic acid begins to accumulate
A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones.
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
forms the walls of the heart
bring messages back to the brain and spinal cord from the muscles, skin and other areas of the body
send messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles causing a neuromuscular response
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones, , the portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it
painful inflammation of the tendon at the outer border of the elbow resulting from overuse of lower arm muscles (as in twisting of the hand)
Inflammation and pain of the flexor and pronator muscles of the forearm where their tendons originate on the medial epicondyle of the humerus; Epicondylitis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
widespread pain in joints, muscles, ligaments, heightened pain at "Tender" points
premature bone thining, with a bone density of 1-2.5 standard deviation units below average
Preipheral Artery Disease
condition of atherosclerosis in the extremities, primarly affecting the calves.
disorder of the nervous system, specifically of the basal ganglia, a mass nerve of cells in the brain that is responsible for motor functions
sugars, fruits and vegetables, lactose from milk, cane or beet sugar
carrots, broccoli, corn, potatoes, bread, cereal, pasta, rice and beans
carbohydrate ranking developed to help define which carbohydrate foods may or may not contribute to the insulin surge and eventual resistance problem
primarily indigestible type of carbohydrate found in fresh fruits, vegetables and grains
fruits, vegetables, seeds, brown rice, barley and oats. Appears to lower blood cholesterol levels and retard the entry of glucose into the bloodstream
includes cellulose, found in whole grains, outside of seeds, fruits, legumes. Promotes more efficient elimination may play a role in colon cancer prevention
animal or fish based foods that supply essential amino acids
lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. Generally from plants, fruits, grains, vegetables
main type of fat found in the diet and in adipose tissue. Desirable serum levels are under 150 mg/dl
primarily from animal sources, butter, whole milk dairy products, meat.
shown to reduce LDL cholesterol without affecting the beneficial HDL cholesterol. Good sources = canola oil, peanut oil, avocado oil
divided into omega-6 vegetable oils and omega-3 fish oils.
"good" blood cholesterol, helps remove plaque from the arterial walls, returning it to the liver. 60 mg/dl or more
"bad" blood cholesterol, delivers plaque to the arterial walls. < 100 mg/dl
non-caloric, organic compounds that the human body cannot produce on it's own
neither vitamins or minerals. They are substances that plants manufacture to protect themselves from viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects and drought.
concept of eating foods that are very nutritious relative to the number of calories
Low Nutrition Density
high in fat, sugar, refined carbohydrates, alcohol
High Nutrition Density
papaya, peppers, wheat bran, bell peppers, greens, skim milk
calculated by multiplying the grams of carbohydrates by the glycemic index
pre-event practice used by endurance athletes to maximally load their muscles with stored glycogen
Hitting the Wall
having an inadequate supply of glycogen (Carbs) for muscular work. Makes for excessive fatigue and a desire to quit
inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, leading to light-headedness, lack of coordination and weakness
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Female Athlete Triad
amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
Resting Metabolic Rate
accounts for 60-75% of daily expenditure and is higher in individuals with a high percentage of lean body mass
Lean Body Mass
structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bones, and other organs (anything that is not fat)
inner confidence that a person has that he or she will be able to accomplish a task
yield more positive results because positive outcomes are emphasised often yielding happy moments
may result in anxiety, depression, and less enjoyment, even if the goal is achieved
Resting Heart Rate
Obtained first thing in the morning when you are completely relaxed but conscious, before getting out of bed
Resting Blood Pressure
What test may require that it can only be taken by licensed health care providers?
opposing muscles of the triceps
opposing muscles of the biceps
anterior medial deltoids
opposing muscles of the latissimus dorsi
opposing muscles of the anterior medial deltoids
opposing muscles of the posterior deltoid, mid-trapezius, and rhomboids
opposing muscles of the erector spinae
opposing muscles of the hamstrings
opposing msucles of the hip adductors
How many risk factors are associated with the ACSM Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors?
1. Men >45 Women >55
2.Myocardial Infarction, Sudden death before 55 of father, 65 of mother
3. Current smoker, or quit 6 months prior
4. not participating in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity 3 x a week
fasting plasma glucose >100 mg
Health Risk Factor
any factor that increases the chance that an individual will develop a disease or condition
Medical History Form
helps identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal or other potential problems
How many components are associated with a Fitness Assessment?
advantages of max tests
large amount of information gathered, actual measurement of a person's ability at a high level
disadvantages of max tests
needs special, expensive equipment, riskier due to potential abnormal heart waves
submaximal exercise test
assess the client's functional aerobic fitness, show improvement of that level over time, help develop an appropriate level of exercise intensity
advantages of submax tests
less expensive, less risky, less specialized equipment is required, testing personnel does not have to be as highly trained or qualified
disadvantages of subxmax tests
less information is obtained, only estimated and not actually achieved
Behaviors that minimize diseases and disabilities
in identifying risk factors
One professional role of a personal fitness trainer is to assist clients:
What is the term that is defined by incorporating skill-related, health-related, and physiologic components?
In wellness, a physical method used to break the stress/tension cycle is to:
What percent of your diet per day should be carbohydrates?
How many servings of fruits and vegetables per day?
How many servings of whole grains should you eat per day?
3 components of energy expenditure
Resting Metabolic Rate, Energy expended with exertion, the thermic effect of food
What is the primary indigestible type of carbohydrate found in fresh fruits, vegetables and grains?
In general, the ______ muscles are worked first
Which muscle fiber type is predominantly used during endurance events? (marathons)
What primary muscle has no actual joint action?
What is one example of a closed kinetic chain exercise?
closed kinetic chain
feet stationary but able to move upper body. Touching a nonmovable surface-distal end stationary proximal end moves
open kinetic chain
When the distal end of an extremity is not fixed to any surface, allowing any one joint in the extremity to move or function separately without necessitating movement of other joints in the extremity.
a condition of abnormal use of glucose usually caused by too little insulin or lack of response to insulin
Recovery Heart Rate
the heart rate of an individual 3 to 5 minutes after a workout. Should be around 100 beats per minute. If any higher, then more conditioning is needed. Body is not recovering fast enough., the gradual return of the heart rate to resting levels within 5-10 minutes of a session of normal cardiovascular physical activity or exercise
Target Heart Rate
the approximate heart rate a person needs to maintain during aerobic exercise in order to benefit from the workout; target heart rate for teens: 145-170
Personal trainers should make sure that the caliper is ______ to the skinfold
The trapezius moves the:
rotate outward, away from the midline (Supination)
rotates inward, towards the middle of the body (Pronation)
Rate of perceived exertion
subjective measure of intensity level of an activity using a numerical scale
Heart Rate Reserve
The difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate
Maximum Heart Rate
The heart's maximum working capacity. To find maximum heart rate = subtract age from 220 Examples: 220 - 14 = 206
Oxygenated blood flows from the heart through the:
each of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood that comes into the heart
Each of the two lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart
airway resistance increases making it difficult to breathe
Excessive use of the gluteal muscles in some athletes (e.g., ice skaters, cyclists, rock climbers) can lead to hypertrophy or spasm of the piriformis muscle, which can compress the sciatic nerve. In individuals with a proximal split of the sciatic nerve (~12%), the common fibular nerve can become compressed as it passes through piriformis.
How many calories are in 1 gram of fat?
How many calories are in 1 gram of protein?
How many calories are in 1 gram of carbohydrate?
calculate protein needs
1. body weight x .45 =body weight in kg 2. body weight kg x .8
Protein is digested into how many amino acids?
people in this stage are not even thinking about a new behavior pattern. Unmotivated, resistant and engage in avoidance tactics
during this stage individuals are seriously considering change but still are not ready to initiate new behaviors
individuals in this stage are preparing to change. May call a health club, buy an exercise video
people are actively changing their behavior in this stage.
this is the stage that sustains long-term ongoing consciousness of the new behavior and successful integration of it into the lifestyle
5 stages in the change process, precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
barriers to exercise
lack of access to exercise, expense of exercise, depression and lethargy, multiple health problems, fear of injury, history of sedentary lifestyle