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Archaeology Exam 1
FOA with Stanton
Terms in this set (56)
A method of reasoning by which one proceeds by generalization from a series of specific observations so as to derive general conclusions
portable objects used, modified, or made by humans
organic and environmental remains not made by humans
places where artifacts, ecofacts, and features are found together
the material surrounding a find (an artifact, ecofact, or feature
the exact position of a find within the matrix
a find's relationship with other finds
The processes affecting the way in which archaeological materials come to be buried, and their subsequent history afterward. Cultural formation processes include the deliberate or accidental activities of humans; natural formation processes refer to the natural or environmental events that govern burial and survival.
the study of processes that have affected organic materials, such as bone after death; it also involves the microscopic analysis of tooth marks or cut marks to assess the effects of butchery or scavenging activities
the study of past behavioral processes through experimental reconstruction under carefully controlled scientific conditions
human behavior is often reflected archaeologically in at least four major activities
Deliberately buried groups of valuables or prized possessions, often in times of conflict or war, and which, for one reason or another, have not been reclaimed. Metal hoards are a primary source of evidence for the European Bronze Age.
a standard cleaning process in archaeological conservation. Artifacts are places in a chemical solution, and by passing a weak current between them an a surrounding metal grill, the corrosive salts move from the cathode (object) to the anode (grill), removing any accumulated deposit an leaving the artifact clean.
the conditions and makeup of the soil or sediment surrounding organic material dictate whether the latter survive
the local and regional weather conditions in turn affects soils, erosion, flora, and fauna
off-site or non-site evidence
Data from a range of information, including scatters of such artifacts and features as plowmarks and field boundaries, that provide important evidence about human exploitation of the environment
There are two basic kinds that can be identified: unsystematic and systematic. The former involves field-walking, i.e. scanning the ground along one's path and recording the location of artifacts and surface features. Systematic survey by comparison is less subjective and involves a grid system, such that the survey area is divided into sectors and these are walked systematically, thus making the recording of finds more accurate
the imaging of phenomena from a distance, primarily through airborne and satellite imaging. "Ground-based remote sensing" links geophysical methods, such as radar, with remote sensing methods applied at ground level
The systematic planning of archaeological research, usually including (1) the formulation of a strategy to resolve a particular question; (2) the collection and recording of evidence; (3) the processing and analysis of these data and their interpretation; and (4) the publication of results
the collective name for a wide variety of methods for identifying individual archaeological sites, including consultation of documentary sources, place-name evidence, local folklore, and legend, bur primarily actual fieldwork
an important technique, primarily employing aerial and satellite imagery, used in the discovery and recording of archaeological sites
Systematic survey by comparison is less subjective and involves a grid system, such that the survey area is divided into sectors and these are walked systematically, thus making the recording of finds ore accurate.
mainly of use in locating Classical , Biblical, and relatively recent sites
Cultural Resource Management
sites in areas that may be under threat from development are located, recorded, and sometimes excavated prior to their destruction
involves field-walking, i.e. scanning the ground along one's path and recording the location of artifacts and surface features.
aerial photography; image that is better for making maps and plans
aerial photography; image that is better for pictorial effect and perspective
LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (AKA ALS [Airborne Laser Scanning])
a remote-sensing technique using the same principle as radar. light is transmitted to a target, some of which is reflected back to the instrument, the time that the light takes to travel to the target and back is used to determine the range to the target
the study of individual features, including settlements, seem as single components within the broader perspective of the patterning of human activity over a wide area
stratified random sampling
a form of sampling in which the region or site is divided into natural zones or strata, such as cultivated land and forest; units are then chosen by a random number procedure so as to give each zone a number of squares proportional to its area, thus overcoming the inherent bias in simple rand sampling
Collective name for a variety of remote sensing techniques operating at ground level, and including both invasive and non-invasive techniques.
A method of subsurface detection which measures changes in conductivity by passing electrical current through the ground. This is generally a consequence of moisture content, and in this way, buried features can be detected by differential retention of groundwater.
earth resistance survey
A method of subsurface detection which measures changes in conductivity by passing electrical current through ground soils. This is generally a consequence of moisture content, and in this way, buried features can be detected by differential retention of groundwater.
ground based remote sensing
the use of non-destructive techniques, such as ground-penetrating radar and magnetometry, to find and map subsurface features
A type of magnetometer used in subsurface detection, producing a continuous reading.
Sometimes referred to as conjoining, this entails attempting to put stone tools and flakes back together again, and provides important information on the processes involved in the knapper's craft.
attempting to put stone tools and flakes back together again, and provides important information on the processes involved in the knapper's craft
the study of archaeological layers found during excavations
An excavation technique developed by Mortimer Wheeler from the work of Pitt-Rivers, involving retaining intact baulks of earth between excavation grid squares, so that different layers can be correlated across the site in the vertical profiles.
Open Area Excavation
The opening up of large horizontal areas for excavation , used especially where single period deposits lie close to the surface as, for example, with the remains of American Indian or European Neolithic long houses.
Excavation method used on very deep sites, such as Near Eastern tell sites, in which the excavation proceeds downwards in a series of gradually narrowing steps.
a survey method used in underwater survey that provides the broadest view of the sea floor.An acoustic emitter is towed behind a vessel and sends out sound waves in a fan-shaped beam. These pulses of sonic energy are reflected back to a transducer—the return time depending on the distance traveled—and recorded on a rotating drum.
three age system
A classification system devised by C.J. Thomsen for the sequence of technological periods (stone, bronze, and iron) in Old World prehistory. It established the principle that by classifying artifacts, one could produce a chronological ordering.
Midwestern Taxonomic System
A framework devised by McKern (1939) to systematize sequences in the Great Plains area of the United States, using the general principle of similarities between artifact assemblages.
A group of artifacts recurring together at a particular time and place, and representing the sum of human activities.
a term coined by V.G. Childe to describe the origin and consequences of farming, allowing the widespread development of settled village life.
A term devised by Julian Steward to account for the dynamic relationship between human society and its environment, in which culture is viewed as the primary adaptive mechanism.
An approach to archaeological interpretation that uses the procedure of the traditional historian (including emphasis on specific circumstances elaborated with rich detail, and processes of inductive reasoning).
A new approach advocated in the 1960s which argued for an explicitly scientific framework of archaeological method and theory, with hypotheses rigorously tested, as the proper basis for explanation rather than simply description
An approach that stresses the dynamic relationship between social and economic aspects of culture and the environment as the basis for understanding the processes of culture change. Uses the scientific methodology of problem statement, hypothesis formulation, and subsequent testing.
The systematic organization of artifacts into types on the basis of shared attributes
a range of approaches formulated in reaction to the perceived limitations of functional-processual archaeology. It eschews generalization in favor of an "individualizing" approach that is influenced by structuralist archaeology, Critical Theory, and neo-Marxist thought.
an important component of cognitive archaeology involving the study of artistic representations that usually have an overt religious or ceremonial significance, e.g. individual deities may be distinguished with a special characteristic, the sun with a sun goddess.
The location and recording (usually through excavation) of archaeological sites in advance of highway construction, drainage projects, or urban development.
cultural resource management
the safeguarding of the archaeological heritage through the protection of sites and through salvage archaeology, generally within the framework of legislation designed to safeguard the past
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