48 terms

Erosion Test vocab

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weathering
Process that breaks down rock into smaller pieces
erosion
process of carrying away weathered material
deposition
process of laying the weathered material
gradient
slope
oxbow lake
a stagnant lake that is formed alongside a winding river when the river changes path because of soil erosion, leaving an abandoned stream channel, cut off from the rest of the river.
meander
broad, c-shaped curve in a river or stream, formed by erosion of its outer bank
mouth
end of a river, the point where it empties into a larger body of water
river bead
The area between the banks of a river ordinarily covered by water
river bank
the bank ( sloping land) of a river
delta
usually triangular silty area at the mouth of a river
waterfalls
sudden drop in a river as it flows over a rock cliff. This happens when the river passes from a layer of hard rock to a layer of softer rock, and the water erodes away the softer rock
back swamps
A temporary swamp area on a floodplain that fills up with water after floods, heavy rain or high tides
plunge pool
A deep basin excavated at the foot of a waterfall by the action of the falling water
stream load
all the materials that the water in a stream carries
flood plain
An area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding
tributaries
a river or stream that flows into another stream, river, or lake.
sandbar
A long, narrow sandbank
velocity
speed
drainage basin
the land area from which a stream gets its water
channel
area that contains flowing water confined by banks
sea cliff
formed when waves erode & undercut rock poducing steep slopes
terrace
a level shelf of land interrupting a declivity (with steep slopes above and below)
sea cave
Formed as wave action hollows out the cliff.
sea arch
an arch formed by wave erosion when caves on opposite sides of a headland unite
sea stack
tall islands of rock
longshore current
waves come at a angle, the waves turn the water so it runs parallel to the shoreline
spit
a narrow strip of land that juts out into the sea
abrasion
the grinding and wearing down of rock surfaces by other rock or sand particles
crevasses
a large crack that forms where a glacier picks up speed or flows over a high point
icebergs
a large piece of ice that breaks off an ice shelf and dirifts into the ocean
roche moutonneess
mountains or rocks that have been carved out by glaciers running over them,Usually have a smooth, gently sloping side facing the direction from which the glacier came
hanging valley
small abandoned glacial valley suspended on a mountain above the main glacial valley
erratics
large boulders that do not match the bedrock of an area
till
mixture of diffrerent-sized sediments
lateral moraine
unsorted material deposited along the sides of a glacier
end moraine
unsorted material deposited along the front of a glacier, also known as terminal moraine
drumlins
a long, canoe shaped hill made of till and shaped by an advancing glacier
outwash plain
area in front of a glacier in which melt water from the glacier has carried & deposited an abundance of sorted material
kettle lake
form when large blocks of ice are left by a receding glacier and buried
striations
long parallel scratches in the rock left by a glacier
continental ice sheets
mass of ice that covers large land areas
valley glaciers
relatively small glaciers in mountain areas, also known as alpine glaciers
dune
a mound of wind-deposited sand
loess
thick deposits of windblown, fine-grained sediments
wind
moving air
mass movement
the movement of any material downslope
creep
the slow movement of material downhill
mudflow
the rapid movement of a large mass of mud/rock and soil mixd with a large amount of water that flows downhill