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behaviour intended to harm another individual

instrumental aggression

inflicting harm in order to obtain something of value

emotional aggression

inflicting harm for its own sake

social learning theory

the proposition that behaviour is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experiences of rewards and punishments

frustration-aggression hypothesis

the idea that frustration always elicits the motive to aggress and that all aggression is caused by frustration


aggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access


a reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression

arousal-affect model

the proposal that aggression is influenced by both the intensity of arousal and the type of emotion produced by a stimulus

cognitive neoassociation analysis

the view that unpleasant experiences create negative effects, which in turn stimulates associations connected with anger and fear; emotional and behavioural outcomes then depend, at least in part, on higher-order cognitive processing

weapons effect

the tendency of weapons to increase the likelihood of aggression by their mere presence

mitigating information

information about a person's situation indicating that he or she should not be held fully responsible for aggressive actions

hostile attribution bias

the tendency to perceive hostile intent in others


adaptation to something familiar so that both physiological and psychological responses are reduced


the process by which the mass media (particularly television) construct a version of social reality for the public

cycle of family violence

the transmission of domestic violence across generations

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