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330 terms

Government Final

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Alexander Hamilton argued that the chief executive office should possess
energy
What was the primary goal of the Constitution's framers?
to create an effective government
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federal government can be best compared to
the United Nations' relationship with member states.
The Constitution is a very difficult document to change by amendment.
True
A conference held to analyze perceived flaws in the Articles of Confederation was called the
Annapolis Convention.
James Madison believed that in the Constitutional Convention the greatest conflict of interests was between
northern states and southern states.
The office of the president was designed by the framers to be capable of overcoming the inevitable stalemate of a bicameral legislature.
True
According to the text, the writing of the Constitution demonstrates the
marriage of interests and principles.
What was the most common form of taxation during the colonial era?
taxes on commercial products and activities
During the Philadelphia Convention, the New Jersey Plan was supported by
the less populous states
What is the term length of a member of the House of Representatives?
two years
A ___________ is a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for powers expressly delegated to a national government.
confederacy
Which was the only state not to send delegates to the Constitutional Convention?
Rhode Island
The supremacy clause
announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws.
The powers of Congress under the Constitution are __________ those of Congress under the Articles of Confederation
greater than
Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?
"No taxation without representation."
Whose "political gospel" inspired the framers to adopt the concept of the separation of phttp://quizlet.com/create_set/owers?
Montesquieu
What led the British to raise taxes on the American colonists during the 1760s?
the French and Indian Wars
Only one-third of the Senate is up for re-election during any single election year, because the framers believed that
this was the only way to protect the Senate against radical changes.
The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of nearly independent states
True
What was one effect of dual federalism during the early Republic?
The national government was spared the task of making difficult policy decisions, such as the regulation of slavery, because the states did it themselves.
A federal block grant gives states no discretion on how to spend the money
False
Which constitutional amendment has been used to restrict the scope of authority by the federal government over the states?
Tenth
Unfunded mandate refers to the national government imposing regulatory costs on the states without reimbursement
True
The privileges and immunities clause of Article IV is also referred to as the
comity clause.
During most of the nineteenth century, Congress used its powers to __________ commerce.
regulate
Which is the best example of a concurrent power under the federal constitution?
the power to regulate commercial activity
__________ describes the strategy of delegating a policy program to a lower level of government.
Devolution
Why was Massachusetts's decision to recognize gay and lesbian marriages such a controversial issue of federalism?
The Constitution requires all states to honor and recognize the official acts of other states.
What was the overall importance of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland?
The Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers
During the era of dual federalism, what was the primary goal of the federal government's domestic policies?
to assist the development of commercial activity within and between the states
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 has increased the level of federal involvement in public education
True
The source of an implied power under the Constitution is the _________ clause.
necessary and proper
The New Deal led to the weakening of the national government's powers.
False
The federal system can be best defined as
a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government.
Federal officials seeking to give state governments more authority are most likely to support
block grants.
What is the main purpose behind the privileges and immunities clause of Article IV?
It prevents a state from discriminating against nonresidents.
When both state and national governments possess a certain level of authority, it is called
a concurrent power.
Why were local governments important during the early years of the Republic?
State administration was often weak.
How has the structure of federalism made way for the longevity of the U.S. government?
It has allowed states to develop in numerous and different ways.
It has allowed for many divisive policy decisions to be made by states, rather than the national government.
It has kept the national government small and aloof throughout most of America's history.
Which of the following forms of speech are given the highest level of protection by the Supreme Court?
political sedition
Which provision of the Bill of Rights has not been nationalized?
All civil liberties have been nationalized
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) and Roe v. Wade (1973) have been extremely important in the development of
a constitutional right to privacy.
Which of the following is the best description of the Supreme Court's first ruling on the issue of the nationalization of the Bill of Rights in 1833?
The Bill of Rights limits the national government but not state governments.
The Bill of Rights
is the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Which of the following would not be an example of speech plus?
assassinating a political leader
The famous Miranda rule was recently overturned by the Supreme Court.
False
The takings clause states that the government may not take private property
without just compensation.
The Bill of Rights was written because
the Antifederalists demanded it as the price of ratification of the Constitution.
The controversy over suspicionless drug tests at school and in the workplace pits the government's war on drugs against the right
to privacy from unwarranted searches.
A woman's constitutional right to an abortion was established in
Roe v. Wade (1973).
The procedural restraints found in the Bill of Rights
define how the government is supposed to act.
Roe v. Wade prohibits states from making abortions illegal based on the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
False
The Bill of Rights was ratified by the states in
1791
The Supreme Court has ruled that the Second Amendment protects private militias.
False
The right to legal counsel in a criminal proceeding is guaranteed by the
Sixth Amendment.
Why is Palko v. Connecticut an important case?
The Supreme Court explained the process for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights would protect individuals against states, as well as the national government.
Which of the following rights has never been incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment?
right to bear arms
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
laws passed in the 1790s that made it a crime to say or publish anything that would defame the government of the United States
The Supreme Court formally articulated the right to privacy in a case involving
access to birth control.
The issue of representation, which threatened to wreck the entire Constitutional Convention, was resolved by the Great Compromise, also called the
Connecticut Compromise.
Why is Palko v. Connecticut an important case?
The Supreme Court explained the process for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights would protect individuals against states, as well as the national government.
What was the primary goal of the Constitution's framers?
to create an effective government
What was the most common form of taxation during the colonial era?
taxes on commercial products and activities
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
laws passed in the 1790s that made it a crime to say or publish anything that would defame the government of the United States
"One person, one vote" reflects the principle of:
political equality.
On the subject of representation, Antifederalists wanted
representative bodies that resembled those represented to the highest degree possible.
The Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution addresses
reserved powers.
According to the text, the writing of the Constitution demonstrates the
marriage of interests and principles.
When Alaska passed a law in the 1970s that gave state residents preference over nonresidents in obtaining work on oil pipelines, this law violated the
privileges and immunities clause
In American political culture, economic freedom means:
laissez-faire capitalism.
The first modern free speech cases arose during World War I.
False
During most of the nineteenth century, Congress used its powers to __________ commerce.
facilitate
If a state grants a city the ability to govern its own local affairs, this delegation of power is known as
home rule.
It is unconstitutional to burn the American flag.
False
The right of each citizen to vote is an example of:
political equality.
What was the main reason that Alexander Hamilton did not want a bill of rights?
He believed it was unnecessary for a government that possessed only specifically delegated powers.
The requirement that persons under arrest be informed of their right to remain silent is known as the __________ rule.
Miranda
Unfunded mandate refers to the national government imposing regulatory costs on the states without reimbursement
True
The system of shared powers, divided between a central government and the states, is called
federalism
The Antifederalists argued that the powers of government should be limited by
both confining the powers of the federal government to certain narrowly defined areas, and adding a bill of rights to the Constitution.
Who described politics as "who gets what, when, and how"?
Harold Lasswell
Which nation does not have a strong federal system?
France
Which statement best describes the Supreme Court's trend in interpreting federalism since the mid-1990s?
The Court has limited the power of the national government over the state governments.
Which Supreme Court case has not limited federal power?
Gibbons v. Ogden
The powers of Congress under the Constitution are __________ those of Congress under the Articles of Confederation.
greater than
The ability of the president to veto a bill passed by Congress is a good example of what principle of limited government?
checks and balances
The Antifederalists wanted a stronger central government than that proposed in the Constitution.
False
The Declaration of Independence was the United States' first governing constitution.
True
The Boston Tea Party started as a reaction to the British imposing an embargo of tea and coffee trade on the colonies
False
The Federalists believed that the threat of tyranny was most likely to be found in the popular majorities, rather than in a handful of aristocratic persons.
True
How was power in Congress divided under the Articles of Confederation?
Each state had an equal vote.
The Constitution's Preamble, beginning with the words "We the People . . . ," is an indication of what principle?
popular sovereignty
Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?
"No taxation without representation."
The framers of the Constitution attempted to create a government that could do all of the following except
lead to the eventual inclusion of nonwhites in political life.
The procedural restraints found in the Bill of Rights
define how the government is supposed to act.
According to the textbook, which of the following is not one of the core American political values?
Socialism
In criminal cases, the burden of proof lies with the
government prosecutor.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federal government can be best compared to
the United Nations' relationship with member states.
Political rights are a protection against:
the tyranny of the majority.
Which level of government is not mentioned at all in the Constitution?
city government
Voting is the building block of American citizenship.
True
Since the New Deal, the Supreme Court has never restricted Congress's power under the commerce clause.
False
Using block grants to return power to states was part of the Nixon and Reagan administrations'
New Federalism
The framers' theory of the separation of powers was influenced by Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws.
True
The essential dilemma of a limited government raised by the ratification debates is that
a government too weak to do harm also cannot do good.
The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the
implied powers.
A woman's constitutional right to an abortion was established in
Roe v. Wade (1973).
Over the course of American history, the federal government has grown __________ compared to the states.
stronger
The Constitution expressly gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review over Congress and the president
False
In dealing with the issue of gays in the military, President Bill Clinton established a
"don't ask, don't tell" policy.
Which of the following people is most associated with the abolitionist movement?
William Lloyd Garrison
At what level of scrutiny do courts review cases involving gender discrimination?
intermediate scrutiny
The constitutional authority of Congress to forbid discrimination in employment is based on the
power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees
the right to vote for African American men.
Ten years after Brown v. Board of Education, __________ percent of black children in the Deep South attended school with white children.
1
Which of the following practices was explicitly protected by the "separate but equal" principle?
segregated schools
The attempt to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment was an important political struggle for
women.
Desegregating schools in the northern states proved to be very difficult because
segregation in the North was generally de facto, the product of both segregated housing and acts of private discrimination that were hard to prove.
Which of the following best summarizes the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education?
Racially segregated schools can never be equal.
What does the term Jim Crow refer to?
the system of racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction
Which city was the setting for a major racial confrontation concerning school busing?
Boston
In Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court
struck down a state law criminalizing homosexual conduct.
The Supreme Court case Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) is important because it
asserted that monetary damages could not be awarded for acts of gender discrimination in education.
What best explains the increased attention the federal government paid to the problem of racial discrimination during the 1940s?
Northern migration of African Americans increased their voting strength.
In 2007, the federal government passed major new immigration legislation.
False
What was the Supreme Court's response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875?
It declared the act unconstitutional because it protected against acts of private discrimination, not state discrimination.
What did the Thirteenth Amendment accomplish?
It abolished slavery.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Bowers v. Hardwick?
There was no constitutional right to privacy for consensual homosexual activity.
Which of the following is not the name of a Latino civil rights organization?
NOW
In a 2007 poll, what percentage of Americans believed that gays should have equal rights in terms of job opportunities?
89 percent
While an individual's underlying beliefs help shape his opinions on particular issues, two other important factors are
one's knowledge of political issues and the outside influences affecting that person's views.
Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between the Clinton White House and public opinion polls?
Clinton relied heavily on public opinion polling to determine which positions to adopt.
Why are groups and associations so critical to the formation of political opinions?
Individuals often consciously or unconsciously adopt the views of groups they identify with.
Which of the following is not an organization committed to developing and marketing conservative ideas and policies?
Common Cause
Question formats can cause errors in polling that affect the polls'
validity.
An important reason for why public policy and public opinion may not coincide in the United States is that
the American system of government includes arrangements, such as an appointed judiciary, which may produce policy decisions that run contrary to prevailing popular sentiment.
Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support
the status quo, the traditional family, and the military
What is an initiative?
A procedure that allows for laws to be placed on a ballot and voted on by the electorate.
Political ideologies can be best understood as
open and fluid sets of general characteristics.
Under the United States' political system, public policy will always coincide with the state of public opinion.
False
Political ideologies do not always provide us with a clear opinion on particular policies.
True
Calling randomly selected phone numbers is a good way for pollsters to reduce sampling errors
True
Less than 50 percent of Americans support free speech
False
What did James Madison identify as the greatest source of political conflict for the United States?
differences between the rich and the poor
If I decide to support a candidate because I see that he or she is the frontrunner in a poll, I become an example of
the bandwagon effect.
The illusion of saliency can give politicians the mistaken impression that certain opinions are very important to people.
True
The failure of major pollsters to predict Jesse Ventura's 1998 victory in Minnesota's gubernatorial election demonstrates that
researchers polled only people who had voted before, ignoring potential new voters.
The United States is a nation without political ideologies.
False
Each of the following is a liberal organization except
the Chamber of Commerce.
Which statement is correct? (about the media)
More local news reporters than national reporters are inclined to give politicians positive coverage
The question of which party was to blame for the shutdown of governmental services in 1995-96 reveals the important media power of
framing
In 2003, Arnold Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy for Governor of California
on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.
All of the following are reasons why newspaper reportage is critical except that
newspapers are the cheapest source of news.
The Supreme Court case Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC upheld
the right of rebuttal
Which of the following statements about adversarial journalism is false?
It became an established practice during World War II.
Reporters have the ability to significantly influence news stories since they
have been trained to think critically and write well.
The Pentagon Papers were released as a result of
a leak by a minor Defense Department staffer.
Which of the following statements is not an argument regularly made in favor of limiting the market power of major media corporations?
Regulating the media market creates more job opportunities in the field of journalism.
The media can set the political agenda in the United States by
identifying an issue as a problem that must be solved.
The power of the media to draw public attention to particular issues and problems is called
agenda setting.
During the nineteenth century, newspapers were controlled by
political parties.
Which of the following news sources reaches most Americans?
television
What trend has helped hasten the homogenization of national news in the past decade?
the corporate consolidation of news media into a small number of conglomerates
What is the main benefit of news coverage on the Internet?
It combines the depth of newspapers with the timeliness of television and radio
The United States has approximately __________ television stations and __________ daily newspapers.
1,900; 1,400
In 1985, the federal government stopped enforcing the __________, arguing that it was no longer necessary due to the increasing number of television and radio stations.
fairness doctrine
The nationalization of news in the United States has had an important political consequence due to
Americans tending to view the world with a similar approach since they are exposed to the same concerns and perspectives.
Approximately __________ percent of news coverage in American newspapers is devoted to international events.
20
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 did all of the following except
allow broadcasters, telephone companies, and cable companies to compete with one another.
loosen federal restrictions of media ownership.
make it illegal to make indecent sexual material accessible to minors on the Internet.
Who inaugurated government affirmative action programs?
Lyndon Johnson
What trend has helped hasten the homogenization of national news in the past decade?
the corporate consolidation of news media into a small number of conglomerates
Which of the following is most free of government regulation?
newspapers
The United States is a nation without political ideologies.
False
The news source that eighteen- to twenty-nine-year-olds most commonly turn to is
broadcast television.
__________ was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
W. E. B. Du Bois
Which of the following statements concerning Internet news is correct?
The Internet has failed to expand its number of news sources since it relies heavily on electronic versions of printed media.
Which of the following is not an organization committed to developing and marketing conservative ideas and policies?
Common Cause
What was the purpose of California's Proposition 187?
It barred unauthorized immigrants from receiving most public services.
In the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Congress vastly expanded the role of the executive branch and the credibility of court orders by
requiring that federal grants-in-aid to state and local governments for education be withheld from any school system practicing racial segregation.
Plessy v. Ferguson upheld the authority of states to require segregation.
True
People's underlying beliefs and ideologies
color their perceptions, often causing them to make automatic judgments on particular issues.
Which of the following terms describe America's fundamental political values?
liberty, equality, and democracy
Approximately __________ percent of news coverage in American newspapers is devoted to international events
20
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was
the fourth civil rights bill passed by Congress since Brown v. Board of Education.
Which of the following news sources typically provides the least depth while covering topics?
the Internet
Public opinion
measures the virtues of political figures, sets the standard by which governmental conduct is measured, and judges the value of public policies
What percentage of daily newspapers are owned by large media conglomerates?
75 percent
Which of the following, concerning the marketplace of ideas, is true?
Very few ideas emerge in the marketplace spontaneously.
Why did President Dwight Eisenhower deploy federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957?
The governor of Arkansas requested that the state's National Guard help resist desegregation.
Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between the Clinton White House and public opinion polls?
Clinton relied heavily on public opinion polling to determine which positions to adopt.
A 1948 report on the problem of racial discrimination, To Secure These Rights, was issued by
the White House.
When pollsters are given a list of people to be surveyed, this list is called the
sampling frame.
Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support
the military, the status quo and the traditional family
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 led to an immediate increase in the number of African Americans registered to vote in the South.
True
Which of the following is not the name of a Latino civil rights organization?
NOW
The question of which party was to blame for the shutdown of governmental services in 1995-96 reveals the important media power of
framing
Which of the following people is most associated with the abolitionist movement?
William Lloyd Garrison
The process by which underlying political values are formed is known as
political socialization.
What best explains the increased attention the federal government paid to the problem of racial discrimination during the 1940s?
Northern migration of African Americans increased their voting strength.
What is the key difference between those who have gone to college and those who have not?
There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education
When state legislatures draw electoral district boundaries in ways that favor themselves, it is called redlining.
False
What is the key question behind civil rights protection?
What is the proper meaning of equality?
Nationalization of the news began
in the first decades of the twentieth century with the development of news corporations and radios.
Which statement about public opinion polls is not true?
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas were the first politicians to use public opinion polls.
Reporters have the ability to significantly influence news stories since they
have been trained to think critically and write well.
Affirmative action programs were first established in the 1960s.
True
A liberal would most likely support
an expansion in government social services.
Most newspapers get their national news from
government reports, press briefings, and announcements.
All of the following are reasons why newspaper reportage is critical except that
newspapers are the cheapest source of news
In 1985, the federal government stopped enforcing the __________, arguing that it was no longer necessary due to the increasing number of television and radio stations.
fairness doctrine
What does the term redlining refer to?
the practice of banks refusing to make loans to people living in certain neighborhoods
What did the Thirteenth Amendment accomplish?
It abolished slavery.
Which president skillfully used broadcast media in order to build a personal connection with the american people?
Franklin Roosevelt
Affirmative action in the United States involves
compensatory action to overcome the consequences of past discrimination.
The first federal civil rights law passed by Congress since 1875 came in what year?
1957
What goal did members of the abolitionist movement pursue?
the end of slavery
Why do radio stations repeat the news so often throughout the day?
The audience is constantly changing since most people listen to the radio in their cars.
During presidential elections, there is often a post-convention __________ in the popularity of a presidential candidate resulting from increased media attention.
bounce
Calling randomly selected phone numbers is a good way for pollsters to reduce sampling errors.
true
Which of the following have political parties been doing less of in recent years?
mobilizing voters
The rioting incident during the 1999 WTO meeting in Seattle is a reminder of how
politically motivated riots have been common in the United States throughout its history.
What is the main difference between voting and lobbying?
Unlike voting, lobbying involves an attempt to directly influence a government official.
Many states used to have property requirements for those wanting to vote.
true
Approximately __________ of eligible voters turn out for midterm congressional elections.
one-third
Which of the following is true about political participation?
African Americans and Latinos are less likely to participate in politics than whites.
Which of the following has not been presented as a reason the decline in voting might not be bad for America?
Those who do not vote have a higher tendency to formulate extreme political opinions that distort the political process.
Political __________ is the process in which large numbers of people are organized for political action.
mobilization
According to the text, the central challenge for establishing a democracy in Iraq has been
securing Sunni participation in politics
What is the most reasonable explanation for why about 70 percent of the Latino population in the United States voted for Democrats during the 2006 congressional elections?
They disagreed with Republican immigration policies.
The proportion of young people voting has __________ since 1971.
decreased
What is a poll tax?
a tax imposed by state governments for those registering to vote
The level of organizational membership in the United States has __________ over the past several decades.
decreased
Participation in politics depends on
resources, civic engagement, and recruitment.
What bloc of voters has recently been called the "sleeping giant"?
latinos
The term turnout describes the number of people who
actually vote.
The American political community is defined as
those who are eligible to vote and participate in American political life.
Studies show that people are more likely to participate in politics when
someone asks them to get involved.
Which of the following is true about political participation?
Young people are far less likely to participate in politics than older people.
The Supreme Court
has ruled that campaign contributions are a form of free speech.
The Federalist Party disappeared forever as a result of
the War of 1812.
Which of the following parties did not originate through internal mobilization?
the Republican Party
Which of the following is the best description of a political party?
an organization that tries to influence the government by getting its members elected to office
The third-party candidate who won the most electoral college votes in American history was
George Wallace.
A party's __________ contains its philosophy, principles, and policy positions.
platform
A party's platform is best understood as
a negotiated agreement between the party's various factions.
During the mid- to late nineteenth century, the Democratic party was divided by
slavery and the Civil War.
How many party systems has the United States had since 1789?
six
In contemporary American politics, solid support for the Republican Party comes from the
South and Mountain West
Throughout its history, American politics has been dominated by
two major political parties
The Populist Party appeals to each of the following groups, except
Eastern bankers.
Which of the following statements concerning third parties is false?
The earliest third parties in the United States arose as a result of the Great Depression.
Which of the following best explains where the standard organizational structure of a political party originated?
the structure of the American electoral system
Which group is most likely to support the Republican Party?
the wealthy
The power of __________ demonstrates how political party bosses can confer governmental favors on loyal party members.
patronage
Who was the founder of the Democratic Party?
Andrew Jackson
Within the government itself, parties are
stable coalitions of individuals who possess shared or overlapping interests.
Which statement is correct? (about political parties)
European democracies tend to have stronger parties than those of the United States
Which of the following was not the date of an electoral realignment?
1994
When a ruling political party is supplanted by a new dominant political force, it is called a(n)
electoral realignment.
A __________ is a media format where candidates meet with ordinary citizens, without the input of journalists or commentators.
town meeting
Private groups that raise and distribute funds for election campaigns are called
political action committees.
"King Caucus" refers to
the use of each party's congressional caucus to nominate presidential candidates during the early nineteenth century.
Plurality and majority systems tend to
decrease the number of political parties.
When legislatures draw district lines made up largely of underrepresented minority groups, the practice is called
benign gerrymandering.
When are national elections held in the United States?
the first Tuesday of November every four years
The boundaries of legislative districts in the United States are to be redrawn every __________ years.
ten
What is the function of an election in a democracy?
1. It serves to legitimize the government.
2. It helps to politically protect different groups in society.
3. It promotes accountability among the leaders.
Recall elections are an electoral device first used by the
Populists.
What unusual act did the Texas legislature perform in 2002?
It redistricted without waiting for a new census.
In order for a political party to select a candidate to run in the general election, it holds a
primary election.
The practice of __________ means that district boundaries have been purposefully drawn to unfairly advantage one group or party
gerrymandering
What is a referendum?
It is the practice of voting directly for proposed laws.
During midterm elections, voters are electing
members of Congress.
The term soft money refers to
money donated to a party to sponsor party building and voter registration.
Who is the major audience for contemporary national conventions?
the mass media
When candidates for office sponsor hearings, undertake inspection tours of disaster areas, or meet with foreign dignitaries, the form of publicity they receive is called
free media.
When a voter must be registered with a party prior to voting in that party's election, it is called
a closed primary.
Which of the following statements is true?
Voting equipment varies from county to county throughout the United States.
If a citizen votes for a candidate because he or she approves of the candidate's past record, it is called
retrospective voting.
The Constitution was amended in __________ to give eighteen-year-olds the right to vote.
1971
The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s used all of the following methods of participation except
the power bloc of southern African American voters.
Approximately how much money does it take for a candidate to have a reasonable chance of winning a seat in the House of Representatives?
$500,000
Which event helped lead to a change in the way that the electoral college chose the president and vice president?
the duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr in 1803
Throughout its history, American politics has been dominated by
two major political parties.
The __________ is the last example of indirect voting in national elections.
electoral college
According to the text, the central challenge for establishing a democracy in Iraq has been
securing Sunni participation in politics.
Each major party's national committee is responsible for nominating its party's candidates for all federal offices.
False
How are election days in the United States different from those in Europe?
European elections are usually held on Sundays instead of working days.
Before the 1890s, who was responsible for printing election ballots?
political parties
Men in the United States are __________ the __________ Party.
somewhat more likely to support; Republican
State and local party organizations do all of the following except
litigate against unfavorable policies
The proportion of young people voting has __________ since 1971.
decreased
A voter's partisan loyalty is at its highest in presidential races.
False
What tendency of Americans did the nineteenth-century writer Alexis de Tocqueville identify as distinctive of our democratic culture?
the tendency to form associations
Most European nations employ what system of elections?
proportional representation
Which of the following was not the date of an electoral realignment?
1994
Which of the following is not an important principle of a responsible party government?
Parties should allow candidates to run their own campaigns.
Which of the following congressional procedures is dependent on partisanship?
committee assignments and the election of speaker of the house
A party's __________ contains its philosophy, principles, and policy positions.
platform
How many party systems has the United States had since 1789?
six
Evangelical Protestants are more likely to be associated with
the Republican Party.
The effort by political candidates and their staff to win backing and support by voters in the quest for political office is known as a(n)
campaign
Karl Rove was the __________ for George W. Bush.
chief political strategist
Which of the following best indicated the downfall of the New Deal Coalition?
Richard Nixon's election in 1968
Studies have discovered __________ to be the key element of successful mobilization efforts.
personal contact
The rioting incident during the 1999 WTO meeting in Seattle is a reminder of how
politically motivated riots have been common in the United States throughout its history.
When a congressional election is held that does not coincide with a presidential election, it is called a
midterm election.
Which statement is correct? (about political parties)
European democracies tend to have stronger parties than those of the United States.
The electoral college cannot elect any candidate who has not also won the popular vote.
False
Studies show that people are more likely to participate in politics when
someone asks them to get involved.
The program of Reconstruction after the Civil War was led by the __________ Party.
Republican
The primary responsibility for conducting public elections rests with
state and local governments.
A political institution can best be defined as
any organization that connects people to politics.
Historically, political parties have been most useful for __________ to achieve political power.
the poor and working class
Women are more likely to vote for the Democratic Party than men are.
True
Which of the following groups have had the highest levels of political participation?
senior citizens
Recall elections are an electoral device first used by the
Populists.
Approximately what percentage of senators and representatives in Congress are women?
15 percent
What issue led to the demise of the Whig Party?
slavery
What is the main difference between elections in a democracy and elections under an authoritarian regime?
Democratic regimes allow for viable opposition, while the leaders do not permit themselves to lose under an authoritarian government.
Which event occurred in 1994?
the Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the 1950s
The term soft money refers to
money donated to a party to sponsor party building and voter registration.
Which party has reserved slots at the national convention for elected superdelegates?
the Democrats
As a third-party candidate, Ross Perot captured approximately __________ percent of the popular vote in the 1992 presidential election.
20
What were the most common favors political bosses distributed to loyal party members during the era of political machines?
jobs
The founder of the Democratic Party was John Quincy Adams.
False
Which of the following is not a key factor in indicating one's level of participation?
geographic region
When legislatures draw district lines made up largely of underrepresented minority groups, the practice is called
benign gerrymandering.
__________ is the most common electoral system used in general elections in the United States.
The plurality system