Special Senses A&P Chapter 15
Loss of smell sensation.
Ringing sound in the ears.
Posterior segment of eye.
Transmits taste sensations from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
Transmits taste sensations from posterior 1/3 of the tongue.
Transmits taste sensations from epiglottis & pharynx.
Transmits sensations of smell to the frontal lobes.
Secretes tears onto surface of the eye.
Drains tears into the nasal cavity from the lacrimal sac.
Drains tears from the lacrimal canaliculi.
Dilute saline solution containing lysozymes that destroy bacteria.
Superior rectus muscle
Moves eyeball upward.
Medial rectus muscle
Adducts or moves the eyeball toward the nose.
Inferior rectus muscle
Moves the eyeball downward.
Inferior oblique muscle
Elevates the eyeball & rotates it laterally.
Lateral rectus muscle
Abducts; moves the eyeball toward the lateral edge of the orbit.
Lateral rectus muscle.
Sense of vision.
Controls superior, inferior, & medial rectus muscles & inferior oblique muscles.
Superior oblique muscle.
Clear expansion of fibrous tunic.
Blood vessel laden component of the vascular tunic.
Contains the pigemented & sensory layers.
Blind spot/optic disc
Region where the optic nerve leaves the retina.
Region of greastest visual acuity.
Dim light & peripheral vision receptors.
High acuity & color vision receptors.
Opening in lens that permits light into inner chambers of the eye.
Colored portion of vascular tunic.
Biconcave structure that changes shape to bring objects into focus.
Thick, jelly-like substance in the posterior compartment of the eye.
Clear, plasma-like substance that baths the lens & cornea.
Utilize the pigment rhodopsin.
Occurs when you go from a dimly lit area to a brightly lit area.
Occurs when you move from a brightly lit area to a dimly lit area.
Transmits vibrations into the inner ear.
Opening from the inner ear into the middle ear.
Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx.
Evaluates rotational motion.
Responds to gravity & movement of the head.
Spiral organ of Corti.
Fluid found within the organ of Corti.
Fluid found in the scal vesitbule & scala tympani.
Frequency of a sound.
Sound that is a mixture of several frequencies.
The height of intensity of a sound wave.
Logarithmic measure of the loudness of a sound.
When sound conduction to the fluid of the inner ear is impeded.
Can be caused by damage to the receptors in the cochlea or brain damage in the auditory regions.
Disorder that affects the semicircular canals & cochlea that lads to attacks of vertigo & nausea often accompanied by tinnitus.
Receptors for taste & smell
Caused by deficiency of zinc.
Conjunctival mucous membrane covers
Both inner surface of eyelids & visible portion of the sclera.
Function is horizontal rotation of eyeball toward the nose.
Ampulla of semicircular canals
Houses the receptors that monitor angular movements of the head.
Tunics of wall of eyeball sequence from inside out
Retina, choroid, sclera.
Sequence of correct passage of light entering the cornea
Cornea, anterior segment, pupil, lens, posterior segment.
Where is the organ of Corti found?
Type of stimulation that result in increase in diameter of pupils
Near point of vision is shortest
Tiny skeletal muscles associated with the ossicles of the middle ear function to
Protect the hearing receptors from loud sounds.
Where are receptors for sound reception & equilibrium located?
Inner ear cavity within the bony labyrinth.
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye
the blind spot on the retina.
Allows equilibrium of air pressure between the middle ear & outside air.
When focusing on a distant object the lens is
70% of sensory receptors in the body are involved
Congential weakness of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
Our eyes are best adapted for
99% of refractive problems in the eye are related to
Length of the eyeball.
Disease of the rods that occur when the pigment epithelial cells are unable to recycle the tips of the rods as they are sloughed off.
One of the few types that can regenerate themselves in adult life.
Bleaching of pigment
Refers to the process of breaking down the retinal-opsin combinations that form rhodopsin found in rods & cones.
When one moves from a well lit room to a dark room
The retina becomes more sensitive.
What is the only special sense not fully functional at birth?
Neurotransmitter involved in hearing in the inner ear.
Eyeballs rotate downward
The muscle is inserted to the inferior surface of the eyeball and it rotated the eye up & laterally.
Circular & radial muscles of the iris
Reflexively contract & control the diameter of the pupil.
Adapted for dim light and peripheral vision.
High cone density & is focus of acute vision.
What is the malleus attached to?
The tympanic membrane & to the incus.
Stimulate receptors closer to the oval window.
Stimulte the receptors in the organ of Corti further away from the oval window.
Connects to the nasopharynx & allows for pressure equalization.
Respond to rotational movements of the head.
Dilate the pupils of th eyes.
Dim light & peripheral vision receptors
Correct order of light transmission from air to the retina.
Air, cornea, aquenous humor, lens, vitreous humor, retina.
Adjustments to low light conditions
Primarily facilitated by changes in rhodopsin concentration.
Located in the roof of the nasal cavity.
Events that occur during sound transmission.
Tympanic membranes vibrates; internal ear fluids are set in motion; hearing receptors are stimulated; ossicles of the ear vibrate; auditory cortes is stimulated.
One of the first signs of cochlear nerve damage.