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112 terms

Special Senses A&P Chapter 15

Special Senses A&P Chapter 15
STUDY
PLAY
Emmetropia
Normal vision.
Myopia
Nearsighted.
Hyperopia
Farsighted.
Anosmia
Loss of smell sensation.
Tinnitus
Ringing sound in the ears.
Cochlea
Organ of Corti.
Cataract
Lens opacity.
Vitreous humor
Posterior segment of eye.
Choroid
Vascular tunic.
Papillae
Taste buds
Sweet tastes
Carbohydrates, sugars.
Sour tastes
Acids.
Bitter tastes
Alkaloids, poisons.
Salty tastes
Metal ions.
Chorda tympani
Transmits taste sensations from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Transmits taste sensations from posterior 1/3 of the tongue.
Vagus nerve
Transmits taste sensations from epiglottis & pharynx.
Olfactory nerve
Transmits sensations of smell to the frontal lobes.
Lacrimal glands
Secretes tears onto surface of the eye.
Nasolacrimal duct
Drains tears into the nasal cavity from the lacrimal sac.
Lacrimal sac
Drains tears from the lacrimal canaliculi.
Lacrimal secretions
Dilute saline solution containing lysozymes that destroy bacteria.
Superior rectus muscle
Moves eyeball upward.
Medial rectus muscle
Adducts or moves the eyeball toward the nose.
Inferior rectus muscle
Moves the eyeball downward.
Inferior oblique muscle
Elevates the eyeball & rotates it laterally.
Lateral rectus muscle
Abducts; moves the eyeball toward the lateral edge of the orbit.
Abducens nerve
Lateral rectus muscle.
Optic nerve
Sense of vision.
Oculomotor nerve
Controls superior, inferior, & medial rectus muscles & inferior oblique muscles.
Trochlear nerve
Superior oblique muscle.
Sclera
White of the eye.
Cornea
Clear expansion of fibrous tunic.
Choroid
Blood vessel laden component of the vascular tunic.
Retina
Contains the pigemented & sensory layers.
Blind spot/optic disc
Region where the optic nerve leaves the retina.
Fovea centralis
Region of greastest visual acuity.
Rods
Dim light & peripheral vision receptors.
Cones
High acuity & color vision receptors.
Pupil
Opening in lens that permits light into inner chambers of the eye.
Iris
Colored portion of vascular tunic.
Lens
Biconcave structure that changes shape to bring objects into focus.
Vitreous humor
Thick, jelly-like substance in the posterior compartment of the eye.
Aqueous humor
Clear, plasma-like substance that baths the lens & cornea.
Rods
Utilize the pigment rhodopsin.
Light adaption
Occurs when you go from a dimly lit area to a brightly lit area.
Dark adaption
Occurs when you move from a brightly lit area to a dimly lit area.
Tympanic membrane
Eardrum.
Oval window
Transmits vibrations into the inner ear.
Round window
Opening from the inner ear into the middle ear.
Auditory tube
Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx.
Semicircular canals
Evaluates rotational motion.
Vestiblule
Responds to gravity & movement of the head.
Cochlea
Spiral organ of Corti.
Endolymph
Fluid found within the organ of Corti.
Perilymph
Fluid found in the scal vesitbule & scala tympani.
Pitch
Frequency of a sound.
Quality
Sound that is a mixture of several frequencies.
Amplitude
The height of intensity of a sound wave.
Decibel
Logarithmic measure of the loudness of a sound.
Conduction deafness
When sound conduction to the fluid of the inner ear is impeded.
Sensorineural deafness
Can be caused by damage to the receptors in the cochlea or brain damage in the auditory regions.
Meniere's syndrome
Disorder that affects the semicircular canals & cochlea that lads to attacks of vertigo & nausea often accompanied by tinnitus.
Vision
Photoreceptors.
Hearing
Mechanoreceptors.
Taste
Chemoreceptors.
Vision
Retina.
Balance
Vestibule.
Hearing
Cochlea.
Taste
Tongue.
Smell
Nose.
Receptors for taste & smell
Chemoreceptors.
Anosmia
Caused by deficiency of zinc.
Conjunctival mucous membrane covers
Both inner surface of eyelids & visible portion of the sclera.
Medial rectus
Function is horizontal rotation of eyeball toward the nose.
Ampulla of semicircular canals
Houses the receptors that monitor angular movements of the head.
Tunics of wall of eyeball sequence from inside out
Retina, choroid, sclera.
Sequence of correct passage of light entering the cornea
Cornea, anterior segment, pupil, lens, posterior segment.
Where is the organ of Corti found?
Cochlea.
Type of stimulation that result in increase in diameter of pupils
Sympathetic nerves
Near point of vision is shortest
In children.
Tiny skeletal muscles associated with the ossicles of the middle ear function to
Protect the hearing receptors from loud sounds.
Where are receptors for sound reception & equilibrium located?
Inner ear cavity within the bony labyrinth.
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye
the blind spot on the retina.
Pharyngotympanic tube
Allows equilibrium of air pressure between the middle ear & outside air.
When focusing on a distant object the lens is
More flattened.
70% of sensory receptors in the body are involved
Sight.
Strabimus
Congential weakness of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
Our eyes are best adapted for
Distant vision.
99% of refractive problems in the eye are related to
Length of the eyeball.
Retinis pigmentosa
Disease of the rods that occur when the pigment epithelial cells are unable to recycle the tips of the rods as they are sloughed off.
Olfactory receptors
One of the few types that can regenerate themselves in adult life.
Bleaching of pigment
Refers to the process of breaking down the retinal-opsin combinations that form rhodopsin found in rods & cones.
When one moves from a well lit room to a dark room
The retina becomes more sensitive.
What is the only special sense not fully functional at birth?
Vision.
Glutamate
Neurotransmitter involved in hearing in the inner ear.
Eyeballs rotate downward
The muscle is inserted to the inferior surface of the eyeball and it rotated the eye up & laterally.
Circular & radial muscles of the iris
Reflexively contract & control the diameter of the pupil.
Rods
Adapted for dim light and peripheral vision.
Fovea centralis
High cone density & is focus of acute vision.
What is the malleus attached to?
The tympanic membrane & to the incus.
High-frequency wave
Stimulate receptors closer to the oval window.
Low-frequency waves
Stimulte the receptors in the organ of Corti further away from the oval window.
Auditory tube
Connects to the nasopharynx & allows for pressure equalization.
Semicicular canals
Respond to rotational movements of the head.
Radial muscles
Dilate the pupils of th eyes.
Dim light & peripheral vision receptors
Rods.
Correct order of light transmission from air to the retina.
Air, cornea, aquenous humor, lens, vitreous humor, retina.
Adjustments to low light conditions
Primarily facilitated by changes in rhodopsin concentration.
Olfactory epithelium
Located in the roof of the nasal cavity.
Events that occur during sound transmission.
Tympanic membranes vibrates; internal ear fluids are set in motion; hearing receptors are stimulated; ossicles of the ear vibrate; auditory cortes is stimulated.
Tinnitus
One of the first signs of cochlear nerve damage.