APUSH Exam 250 things to know
Terms in this set (220)
Colony in Virginia, The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony. The settlement became part of the Joint Stock Virginia Company of London in 1620. Grew to be a prosperous shipping port.
First Africans brought to Virginia 1619
The Africans became indentured servants, similar in legal position to many poor Englishmen who traded several years labor in exchange for passage to America. With the success of tobacco planting, African Slavery was legalized in Virginia and Maryland, becoming the foundation of the Southern agrarian economy.
Mayflower compact 1620
The FIRST CONSTITUTION OF THE USA! This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the settlers agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule. Pledged loyalty to the King.
Great Migration of Puritans to Massachusetts 1630s &1640s
Puritans wanted to remove all "taints" from the Church of England. Feared individualistic behavior and formed communities of support and assumed responsibility for all people around them. (holy watchers) the "Promised Land"- establish holy communities devoted to serving God. "City on a Hill."
Roger Williams established Rhode Island 1636
A preacher who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
William Penn established Pennsylvania 1681
Son of very wealthy Sir Admiral William Penn. One of wealthiest sugar planters. Rebelled against his parents. Founded Pennsylvania for the QUAKERS—tolerant of all people, religions, and ethnicity. nicknamed the Society of friends
***Salem Witch Trials 1692
Wave of hysteria swept through Massachusetts regarding outrageous religious convictions and proposed witchcraft. 150 people arrested, 26 convicted. this changed the dynamics of wealth because the wealthy were accused of witchcraft more often than the poor (if convicted, they lose property)
James Oglethorpe established Georgia 1732
social reformer who established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors (the poor who were in debtor's prison)
Jonathan Edwards sparked the Great Awakening 1734
wrote "sinners in the hands of an angry god", Puritan Minister sparked the Great revival of religion
The Great Awakening 1734
Puritanical era where religion became important because people feared they were going to be punished by God. Johnathan Edwards.
The French and Indian War 1754-1763
(7 years war) French & Natives vs. English & Colonists. Ended in 1763 with victory at Quebec ended seven years' war with the British winning. The Taking of Montreal in 1760 ended french as a major power. Natives sided with french as they were the lesser of two evils and had inter-racial relations and treated them with respect.
Proclamation of 1763
reserved all land west of the racial boundry line for natives and forced the settlers who were living west of that line to move east. (Part of a peace arrangement)
Stamp Act 1765-1766
In 1765, This act required the colonists to pay for a stamp to go on documents like: deeds, mortgages, liquor licenses, playing cards, and almanacs. The colonists objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed a formal meeting, and boycotted English imports. In 1766, Parliament repealed the act which was a major victory for colonists. No Taxation without representation
Declaratory Act 1766
Following the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that the British Parliament held the same power in the colonies as in Britain. Gave Parliament the authority to pass any law they pleased upon the American colonies. (punishment for the stamp act repeal)
Townshend Acts 1767
passed by Parliament, put a tax on glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts caused protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its little profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Boston Tea Party 1773
In response to the Tea Act, saying that the East India Trade company could trade directly with colonists which cut out the middle man (American colonists then lost their jobs/money), Colonists dressed as Indians and dumped 10,000 pounds worth of tea into Boston Harbor.
First Continental Congress 1774
55 delegates met in September 1774 to establish the DECLARATION of RIGHTS & showed the colonists' defiance towards the British
Lexington and Concord 1775
SPARK of the REVOLUTIONARY WAR. First shot fired by whom is unknown. First revolutionary battle. April 1775. British Troops marched from Lexington to Concord, MA trying to end rebellion and their leaders in MA. Americans extremely outnumbered. 237 British died & only 95 Americans died
second Continental Congress 1775
May 1775; authorizes a continental army and issues the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
Treaty of Alliance 1778
was a defensive alliance between France and the USA, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War. Promised military support in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future. Delegates of King Louis XVI of France and the Second Continental Congress, who represented the United States government at this time
Battle of Yorktown 1781
LAST BATTLE of the REVOLUTIONARY WAR, British surrender (Parliament officially declares end of war in February).
Articles of Confederation went into effect 1781
First US government 1781-89;
STRENGTHS: unity for war, diplomatic corps kept relations with other countries, Northwest Ordinances;
WEAKNESSES: government couldn't regulate foreign commerce, couldn't tax, no chief executive, no court system, couldn't declare war, couldn't force state compliance with laws, all 13 states permission needed to pass laws
Peace of Paris 1783
America, Britain, France, Spain & 6 nations of Europe form a treaty. All want to weaken British power (France wants the war to continue so that British loses will be greater & want America to become dependent on France)
Northwest Ordinances 1784, 1785, and 1787
provided a system for surveying western land, provided political organization for interior region; 3 parts:
1) adopt-a-state plan
2) grid system
3) no slavery in Northwest territory
Shay's Rebellion 1786-1787
Angered by taxes & debts, Daniel Shay led a rebellion against the American Gov't. (SHOWED how Articles of Confederation were weak) the people didn't have a commercial bank and had to borrow from each other; were in large debt. Uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes, was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had worked for in Revolutionary war
constitutional convention 1787
Met in Annapolis in September 1787 to discuss interstate commerce in response to Shay's rebellion. Only 5/13 states showed up
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay promoted the Ratification (federalist ideas) in NY, stand as a primary on what the writers of the Constitution had in mind when they were creating the document.
Creation of a new gov't 1789
Alexander Hamilton appointed Secretary of the Treasury 1789
Federalist, first Secretary of Treasury, financial plan which included Report on Public Credit, Assumption Bill, National Bank - Washington usually follows his ideas vs. those of D-Rs
samuel slater established first textile mil 1790
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
***BILL OF RIGHTS 1791
Condition of ANTI-Federalists in order to ratify; guaranteed people's rights.
Cotton Gin 1793
Eli Whitney created it; faster process, made need for slaves increase
Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality 1793
He said he was nuetral on the topic of French/Brit fight, but by not helping the French, he WAS helping England. (Alex H = Brits & TJ = France)
Whiskey Rebellion 1794
Pennsylvania grain farmers rebelled against an excise tax which would have greatly lowered profits on their whiskey, Washington fought back by SENDING TROOPS to dispel rebellions - set a precedent that laws under the Constitution needed to be followed
Washington's Farewell Address 1796
Set the precedent for Presidents to serve 4 years (gave us the name Mr. President) he let democracy survive.
The XYZ affair 1797-1798
3 representatives of France attempted to coerce American diplomats into paying for peace (neutrality) as they (along with Britain) had been attacking American ships, angered President Adams who followed with passing Alien & Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
Raised residence requirement for citizenship, Alien - authorized president to expel aliens if deemed dangerous, Sedition- made conspiring against government strictly punishable (meant to protect from France especially at the time).
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1798-1799
prompter: alien & sedition acts
Direct challenge to Federalist laws. Kentucky (drafted by Jefferson) passed November 1798 declaring the National Gov't had violated the bill of rights, each state has the equal right to judge its own infractions (nulification)
Virginia (drafted by Madison & after KT) asserted that when Gov't threatens peoples' liberties, the states have the right to interven (nullification of states)
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Bur were in a dead lock to the house of reps & Hamilton had to persuade the house to choose Jefferson (TJ was the lesser of two evils) TJ wins & John Adams becomes VP
Midnight Judges 1801
John Adams, (right before TJ took office) knowing his party was voted out of power filled the courts with Federalist judges during the last of his term
***Marbury versus Madison 1803
Judge Marbury sues James Madison, who refused to sign his judicial appointment by lame duck Adams, Chief Justice John Marshall declares that the Second Judiciary Act under which Marbury was appointed was UNCONSTITUTIONAL - win for Madison but overall win for Feds because allotted more federal power.
Louisiana Purchase 1803
Jefferson wanted to purchase to expand the nation peacefully; Napoleon was willing to give up because of threats of war with England, they had just lost a black rebellion in Haiti, were unable to defend the territory - $15 million for 530 million acres
Lewis and Clark expedition 1804-1806
Trial of Aaron Burr 1807
Jefferson's vice-president for his first term; not voted into a second term because of radical ideas and ventures that threatened to break up the Union and resulted in the death of Alexander Hamiltonin duel
Jefferson's embargo 1807
Led to the war of 1812, interconnected with the non-importation act, forbade all international trade to or from America in response to the impressments of sailors.
War of 1812 (1812- 1815)
US refused to tolerate Britain's: presence in America, encouragement of Indian raids, and attacks on American commerce (& impressments of soldiers); reasons for fighting had been resolved before war was declared, Battle of New Orleans took place after treaty had been signed in Belgium, at end of war things were the same as before... Battle of New Orleans was Final Major Battle
Hartford Convention 1814
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from USA if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party
Treaty of Ghent 1814
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of New Orleans 1815
Famous battle the occurred AFTER the War of 1812 is finished ironically. Battle that made Andrew Jackson a war hero- he was able to bring together americans and inspire them to fight the Brits.
The American System 1815
A system proposed by Henry Clay where America functioned by the southern and western states sending crops and unfinished goods to the north and east and then they would send finished goods and food to the south and west. (Its like a giant circle where everyone gets what they need from other parts of America)
***Era of Good Feelings 1815-1824
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819
Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere
Adams-Onis Treaty 1819
agreement in which Spain gave over control of the territory of Florida to the United States
***Missouri Compromise 1820
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. 1. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. 2. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states
First Lowell Factory opened 1823
Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1823 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
Monroe Doctrine 1823
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility. (MANIFEST DESTINY- Usa had the RIGHT to develope the land)
***Election of 1824
An election that lead to much controversy. Andrew Jackson won both the popular vote and the electoral vote, but the decision went to the House of Reps. Henry Clay gave his vote to John Quincy Adams, and Adams ended up winning. John Quincy Adams ended up selecting Henry Clay as his secretary of state (a straight shot to the presidency). Andrew Jackson accused them of striking a "CORRUPT BARGAIN!".
Indian Removal act 1830
Maysville Road Veto 1830
proposed building a road in Kentucky (Henry Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Nat Turner's rebellion 1831
Uprising of slaves in Southampton County, Virginia, in the summer of 1831 led by Nat Turner which resulted in the death of 55 white people.
Nullification Crisis 1832-1833
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
Jackson destroyed Bank of the US 1833-1836
Jackson feels bank has too much power: Biddle boasts he could influence Congress, bank favors the wealthy and hurts the average person, Biddle asks to get bank charter renewed but Jackson vetoes it and removes the government funds, so the bank dies
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress
Horace Mann began school reform in Massachusetts 1837
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation
Trail of Tears 1838
under Andrew Jackson, moved all Indians east of MS River to Oklahoma; AJ went against the Supreme Court's decision to allow indians to stay and forced indians to move; The Cherokee Indians traveled more than 800 miles More than 4, 00 Cherokees died during the 116-day journey.
election of 1840
Whigs were united under William Henry Harrison, the one Whig candidate who had won national support 4 years earlier. The result was a Whig victory and a truly national two-party system
term manifest destiny first used???
..........COINED BY JOHN L. O'SULLIVAN, AN AMERICAN COLUMNIST AND EDITOR, IN AN ARTICLE TITLED "ANNEXATION" IN THE DEMOCRATIC REVIEW, WHICH CALLED FOR TEXAS TO BE ADMITTED INTO THE UNION. BELIEF THAT GOD HAD GIVEN THE U.S. A MISSION TO SPREAD DEMOCRACY. JUSTIFIED EXPANSION BUT DID NOT CAUSE IT.
Annexation of Texas 1845
Texas seceded from Mexico and declared independence in response to Mexican abolition of slavery. US adopts/annexes Texas because Southern states support Texas slavery. The North feared expansion of slavery and war with Mexico
***Mexican-American War 1846
Polk wanted to also aquire California/New Mexico region. Polk resorted to an agressive method by sending troops to disputed area. US declared war on Mex. when hostilities arose. Americans captured Mexico City. Santa Anna fled, war ended
Mormons migrated to Utah 1847-1848
What was the largest single migration in American History in 1847. Along with the founding of Salt Lake City by Young Birgham
Seneca Fall Convention 1848
the first national woman's rights convention; the site where the declaration of sentiments was written
Mexican cession 1848
(southwestern USA) under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the end of the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
CA Gold rush 1949
(San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco. Many young men looking to make a name for themselves
Wilmot Proviso 1849
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso" became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by:
1) instating the Fugitive Slave Act (in favor of south)
2) banning slave trade in DC (north win)
3) California as a free state (north)
4) splitting up the Texas territory and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession (south)
Uncle Tom's Cabin 1852
written by harriet beecher stowe that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, This began guerrilla warfare
Creation of the republican party 1854
The Democratic Party was divided along North-South lines -The Whig Party disintegrated, with its members either joining the Know-Nothings or the newly created Republican Party -The Republican Party's unifying principle was that slavery should be banned from all the nation's territories and not permitted to spread any further to established state
***the dread scott case (Dred Scott versus Sandford) 1857
Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional!
Lincoln-douglas debates 1858
During the race to become senator of IL, Lincoln & Douglas debated certain topics such as slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates
John Brown Raid 1859
militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at HARPER'S FERRY. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed, but seen as a hero to many extremists.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union
southern sucession 1860-1861
Secessionists left for a number of avowed reasons, mostly relating in some way to slavery; they were alarmed by the inexorable tipping of the political balance against them. The "crime" of the North, was the census returns; Southerners were dismayed by the triumph of the sectional Republican party, which seemed to threaten slaveholding minority—weary of free-soil criticism, abolition nagging, and northern interference. Many southerners supported secession because they felt sure that their departure would be unopposed; they were confident that the Yankee would not, could not fight. They believed that northern manufacturers and bankers, so heavily dependent on southern cotton and markets, would not dare to cut their own economic throat
fort Sumter 1861
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; Lincoln sent supplies as a way to provoke the south (secretly) to begin the war. the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Homestead Act 1862
the law offered 160 acres of land free for anyone who agreed to like on and improve the land for 5 years, companies got better land
Morrill Land-Grant Act 1862
passed by Congress, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges
Emancipation Proclamation 1863
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states (deep south) would be free. (hoped the blacks would overthrow whites and help in the war) after winning the battle of antietham- as a sign of union victory
Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg 1863
In july 1863 these two cities fell to Union troops turning the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. Gettysburg was one of the Bloodiest battle and was the farthest the South ever got (saved the capital).
Appomattox Court House 1865
famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Abraham Lincoln assassinated 1865
The first president to be assassinated, done so by John Wilkes Booth, Andrew Johnson (Democrat) became president. (originally he was only made vp becasue he was a southerner who never left the union)
Freedmen Bureau 1865
(lincoln) The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
13th amendment 1865
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Purchase of Alaska 1867
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold
Radical Reconstruction began 1867
Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
Andrew Johnson Impeachment Trial 1868
attempted impeachment against President Johnson in 1868; power struggle between him and Congress- President removed cabinet officer w/o Senate approval and he interfered w/ congressional reconstruction; crippled his presidency
14th amendment 1868
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Transcontinental Railroad completed 1869
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Knights of Labor created 1869
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Standard Oil 1870
was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
Wyoming give Women Right to Vote 1870
an act granting the women of Wyoming the right of suffrage
- in the west, women were seen as equals because they did just as much work
Battle of Little Bighorn 1876
Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
Election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress, but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes who cheated?
Great railroad strike of 1877
A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men
Chief Joseph surrenders 1877
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
James Garfield assassinated 1881
20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage
Booker T. Washington founds Tuskegee Institution 1881
Chinese Exclusion act 1882
banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease
Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883
law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Haymarket Square Riots 1886
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing and injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted ANTI-immigrant feelings
American Federation of Labor created 1886
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Jane Adams founds the Hull house 1887
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty
*Dawes Severalty Act 1887
dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
***The "Gospel of Wealth" 1889
book written by Andrew Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
How the Other Half lives 1890
book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenements. Was very graphic and caused people to re-evaluate tenement houses
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by President Ben Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused AGAINST labor unions
Wounded Knee Massascre 1890
In December 1890, Army troops captured some of Sitting Bull's followers and took them to a camp. 300 Sioux men, women, and children were killed mercilessly
Ellis Island opens 1892
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed into the USA if they were healthy
Homestead Strike 1892
steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company (US Steel). Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to railroad companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, some say as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Pullman Strike 1894
nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - President Grover Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
*** Plessy versus Ferguson 1896
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. (Black man was removed from a "white" cart) Equal, but segregated
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats/ the Populist Party/ the Silver Republicans (Will tried to appeal to too many people). Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial
Spanish American war 1898
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. America intervened "on behalf of" Cuba and phillippines, but really wanted to establish itself in pacific. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Open Door Policy 1899
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. (Because USA was late in trading with China and feared that we wouldn't be able to trade)
Filipino Rebellion 1899 -1901
led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipinos wanted their independence from Spain and then America, after Aguinaldo was defeated the US formed the Philippine Commission with Taft as the leader; he formed a strong bond with the people and improved conditions there (schools, transportation, roads, taught English
William McKinley assassinated 1901
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. well-loved by the people, but was assassinated by an anarchist
Theodore Roosevelt mediated Coal Miner's Strike 1902
Roosevelt stepped in a threatened to operate the mines with federal troops, miners received a 10% pay raise and an hour reduction
Wright Brother fly First Airplane 1903
Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
Northern Securities Company broken up 1904
A giant conglomerate of railroads that had a monopoly over the Great Northern and Northern Pacific lines; President Theodore Roosevelt ordered the company broken up in 1902, and it was dissolved by the Supreme Court in 1904
Roosevelt Corollary 1904
Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. we were the "police of the western hemisphere"
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty 1904
agreement between panama and us that gave us a 99 year lease to build a canal on a ten mile wide strip of land across panama isthmus
The Jungle is published 1906
book by Upton Sinclair went undercover and exposed the abuses of the meat packing industry.The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act by Teddy Roosevelt
Model T car introduced 1908
The first widely available automobile powered by a gasoline engine; mass-produced by Henry Ford from 1908 to 1927. changed American life because now middle class people were able to own a cheap, durable car.
NAACP organized 1909
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Election of 1912
The Progressive Party (bull-moose) was an American political party. It was formed after a split in the Republican Party between incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt. Taft gets 3rd, TR gets 2nd, Wodrow Wilson democrat *WINS, Eugene Debbs 3rd party gets 4th-but got a lot of votes
16th amendment 1913
Amendment to the United States Constitution gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th amendment 1913
this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Federal Reserve System created 1913
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefitting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property.
***Birth of a Nation 1915
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK
Pancho Villa's Raid 1916
led hundreds of troops to Columbus, New Mexico and burned the town down; this event killed 17 American
USA enters WW1 1917
war started by the assassination of Austrian Crown Prince Ferdinand, rival countries went to war. Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) versus Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia). U.S. tried to remain neutral but Germans sunk Lusitania. April 6, 1917 - we joined the Allied Powers. Ended with the Treaty at Versailles
Woodrow Wilson's 14 points 1918
Wilson's proposition for world peace and democracy after the horrors of the global conflict in WWI. Was viewed with mixed reaction from many Americans who wanted to return to post-war isolationism and those that wanted America to play a large role in post-war peace. wanted to create a League of Nations
18th Amendment 1919
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Treaty of Versailles defeated 1919
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1) stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages (33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons
Palmer Raids 1920
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
19th Amendment 1920
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
National Origins Act 1924
Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
Teapot Dome Scandal 1923- 1924
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921. became symbolic of the scandals of the Harding administration
Scopes Trail 1925
The trail where 24 year old John Scopes was convicted of teaching the theory of evolution in the classroom. In this case the defence attorney Clarence Darrow put up to the questioning stand William Jennings Bryan the prosecution attorney as an "expert on the bible." In this transaction Darrow was able to make bryan's view on the bible silly. This lead to the retreat of fundamentalists in the United states.
Charles Lindbergh's flight 1927
an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. Louis. In the ensuing deluge of fame, Lindbergh became the world's best-known aviator
Sacco and Vanzetti executed 1927
two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in MA for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
Jazz singer 1927
The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson
Stock Market crash 1929
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 on Black Tuesday it took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock
Hawley-Smoot Tariff 1930
Herbert Hoover 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
Stimson Doctrine 1932
Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
Bonus March 1932
a chaotic series of events that ruined Hoover's public image. He ordered Gen. Douglas MacArthur to clear out the army vets who came to DC in 1932 to lobby for a bonus promised them for 1945. Senate refected it but some still stayed in littles huts (Hoovervilles), driven away by tear gas and their shacks were burnt down
First New Deal 1933
FDR established to serve the "three Rs" Relief for the people out of work, Recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and Reform of American economic institutions
Good Neighbor Policy 1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Schechter v. United States 1935
This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA (national recovery administration) poultry code which dealt with wage-fixing and pricess. It resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation.
Dust Bowl 1935
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages. (Think grapes of wrath)
Second New Deal 1935
Jan 1935-Sept1935- Reorganized fed program for jobless relief. Assistance to rural poor,Supp for org labor, social welfare benefits for elder, stricker business reg, heavier taxes on wealthy
Wagner Act 1935
established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Social Security Act 1935
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Huey Long assassinated 1935
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society
Congress of Industrial Organizations created 1935
Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 195
FDR's Court-Packing Plan 1937
Franklin Roosevelt asked Congress to permit the President to increase the number of judges from 9-15 if the judges refused to retire after the age of 70, it never became a law because it was a threat to the separation of powers
Roosevelt Recession 1937-1938
When FDR started to take away some of the new deal programs recession started back up again. This proved that the new deal programs didnt "cure" the depression, they only "stopped the bleeding"
Lend-Lease Act 1940
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Atlantic Charger 1941
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Pearl Harbor 1941
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Japanese-American internment 1942
Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in internment camps because of their fear for another attack by the Japanese.
Normandy Invasion 1944
On 6 June 1944, Canadian Troops were part of the Allied forces which attacked the Normandy coast of France in OperationOverlord.
GI Bill 1944
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterans as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Yalta Conference 1945
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese Wa
Potsdam Conference 1945
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
(FDR following death) nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truma
"Iron Curtain" Speech 1946
Speech delieverd by Winston Churchill said that the defeat of the Axis called for an Alliance of the American people against communism
Truman Doctrine 1947
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism
Marshall Plan 1947
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Jackie Robbinson and the Brooklyn Dodgers 1947
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring hope and opportunities for African Americans
National Security Act 1947
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Berlin Airlift 1948
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
Election of 1948
The U.S. presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for the Democratic Party in a presidential election. Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party, a status they would retain until the 1980's.
Nato Formed 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country (USSR); US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Joseph McCarthy attacked the State Department 1950
Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists. (Turned into Salem witch trials, holy watchers)
Korean war 1950
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. Never truly resolved!
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed 1953
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. sent USA into a panic
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson
Geeneva accords 1954
a 1954 peace agreement that divided vietnam into communist-controlled north vietnam and non-communist south vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
Joseph McCarthy condemned for misconduct 1954
Montgomery bus boycott 1955- 1956
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Interstate Highway Act 1956
In 1956, Congress began funding a limited-access interstate highway system that has enormously increased long-distance travel in America and shifted population away from the central city to the suburbs
***Integration of Little Rock High School 1957
9 African American students were going to desegrate a traditionally all white school. The govener said that no school will be integrated when im govener. He put troops infront of the school so that they couldn't go in. President Eisenhower sent FEDERAL troops to let the kids into the school
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race to the man on the moon.
U-2 aircraft shot down by U.S.S.R. 1960
United states U-2 spy plane was shot down over soviet union airspace US denied it was there plane doing surveillance until Soviet's announced the survival of the pilot.
Greensboro sit-ins 1960
The Greensboro Sit-ins were protests where 4 students from the NC Agricultural and Technical College sat down at whites only lunch counter. Once they were there, they refused to move. Each day, they came back with many more protesters. Sometimes, there were over 100. These sit-ins led to the formation of the SNCC. Led to sit-ins across the country.
Eisenhower's Farewell Address 1961
spoke of the military-industrial complex, which tied military activity to industrial production tightly; feared that it would become a problem for a democracy because it was too close to becoming dictatorial
Bay of Pigs 1961
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Freedom Riders 1961
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Peace Corps 1961
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Feminine Mystique published 1963
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker
March on Washington 1963
250,000 people for a peaceful demonstration to promote Civil Rights and economic equality for African Americans. I have a dream speech was given here by Martin Luther King jr.
John Kennedy assassinated 1963
Loved by all, 35th president of the United States and was the youngest president to be elected, and the youngest to die by an assassination by Lee Harvey Oswald.
The great society 1964-1965
Series of domestic initiatives announced in 1964 by Lyndon B Johnson to "end poverty and racial injustice." they included the Voting rights act of 1965, establishment of the Dept of Housing and Urban Development, Head start, job-training programs, medicare and medicaid expansion, and various community action programs
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Malcolm X assassinated 1965
renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality (violent)
Vietnam War escalated 1965
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Voting rights of 1965
act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
Watts riots 1965
riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country
Miranda v. State of Arizona
Tet Offensive 1968
National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Johnson withdraws from presidential race 1968????
36th President of the United States was elected Vice President and succeeded Kennedy when Kennedy was assassinated (1908-1973)
Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated 1968
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Robert Kennedy assassinated 1968
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Anti-war riots at the Chicago Democratic Convention 1968
Where 10,000 antiwar protestors gathered outside as Hubert Humphrey was decided upon as the Democratic candidate in 1968
AIM created 1968
Native American activist organization in the United States. In October 1973 the American Indian Movement gathered its forces from across the country onto the Trail of Broken Treaties, championing Indian unity. The national AIM agenda focused on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty.