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GEO 2506 Test 1
Terms in this set (76)
What is the dominant language in this region? Dominant religion?
Spanish; Roman Catholic
What is the language of Brazil?
What are the three basic types of landforms in this region? Where are they located? Characteristics?
1. Eastern Highlands (2000-4000 ft): relatively flat; iron/gold/diamonds; bad farming soil
2. Central Lowlands: river basin (orinoco, amazon, parana river)
3. Mountainous Areas: Andes Mts. (16,000-19,000 ft.)
Where is the Orinoco River?
Border of Venezuela & Colombia
Who sighted the Orinoco River?
What economic activities are done at the Orinoco River?
Cattle grazing land; oil discovery
How does the Amazon rank in length compared to other rivers?
2nd longest in the world
What does the Amazon rank #1 in?
Largest watershed; largest number of tributaries; largest volume of water drained into the ocean
Where is the Amazon river?
Starts in Andes, ends into Atlantic Ocean; "middle river"
What type of economic activities are done at the Amazon?
Farming and exports
What is the danger of economic exploitation on the Amazon?
Deforestation- rain wipes away the good soil
Is the Amazon completely developed, and has it been totally explored?
Where is the Parana-Rio-de-la-Plata? How does it compare to the Amazon? What economic activities are done here?
Runs through Argentina, borders Paraguay into Brazil; 120 miles wide; farming, hydroelectric dams power large cities
What is the "land bridge" between Mexico and South America?
Why can countries in this region have hot temperatures in one place and cold in a nearby another place?
Loses 3.5 degrees for every 1000 feet you go up; some areas of extreme precipitation; alternating wet/dry seasons
In what modern day country was Teotihuacan located in?
About when did Teotihuacan have its height and decline?
How big did Teotihuacan grow?
over 200,000 people
What did the people of Teotihuacan build?
Temple of the Sun and Temple of the Moon
Why did people move to Teotihuacan?
To escape volcanoes
What are chinampas?
Who were the Mayans? Where were they?
Culturally unified group; Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize
Was there a single Mayan empire, controlled by one city?
No; city-states ruled by kings (60 diff. leaders)
Why did the Mayans build magnificent buildings, like large temples?
To worship gods
What are the theories behind this Mayan decline?
When did the Aztecs establish their capital of Tenochtitlan?
What did the Aztecs build on the lake? What did this do?
Dike; protected their fresh water
Were there more or less famines in the Andean civilizations than in the Central American civilizations? Was the climate harsher?
Climate is harsher in Andes
Where was the Incan Empire located? How many miles did it stretch?
Northern Ecuador to Chile; 3000 miles
The Incans were shepherds of what?
llamas & alpacas
What was the Incan capital?
How many miles of road did the Incans build? What were the roads like?
13,000 miles; rest stops and walls to keep animals away
How did the Romans influence Spain?
Influenced by Roman Empire; Latifundios
What were latifundistas, and why did they develop?
Large landlords; farming for profit
Who were the Moors and when did they invade the Iberian Peninsula?
Islamic group made up of black North Africans (Berver's) and Arabs from North Africa; 711 AD
What type of crops did the Moors bring?
Rice, citrus fruits, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, bananas
Did the Spanish accept the Moors racially?
What were some of the main career options open for Spanish men, if they wanted to have a respectable place in Spanish society?
Landowner, military, religious
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas and what did it say/do?
1494; imaginary line drawn by the Pope- Portugal had everything to the east, Spain had everything to the west
Who were the conquistadors and what did they want to do?
Conquerors of Latin America; riches
Who was Hernan Cortes?
Spanish Conquistador who attacked Aztecs; captured Montezuma
Who was Montezuma II?
Leader of the Aztecs
What Mexican port city did Cortes establish?
Which empire did Cortes target?
What happened between Cortes and the Aztecs?
Stoned and imprisoned Montezuma, Cortes driven out of city, defeat Aztecs after 3 months- built Mexico City on top of it
Who was Franciso Pizarro and when did he begin his journey to find the Incas?
Illiterate swine herder; 1520's
What happened at Cajamarca?
Most leaders were murdered
What happened to the Incan Emperor?
Killed after exchanging jewelry
What city did Pizarro establish?
What was discovered at Potosi, Bolivia?
Largest amount of silver
What were the environmental impacts of silver mining?
Destroyed forests around mines
What was the economy of the colonies like and how did this affect demographics?
Poor?; royals and rich people headed for Brazil
How did Napoleon impact Latin America independence movements?
Conquest of Iberian Peninsula
What happened to Spain's Ferdinand VII?
Imprisoned by Napoleon
What happened to Portugal's John VI?
Fled to Brazil, left son Pedro in charge
When did Brazil get its independence?
When did colonies gain their independence?
Republic of Colombia: 1819
Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, Central America: 1821
Why do people move to cities? Are the realities in line with expectations?
Opportunities, higher income, education, healthcare; no
How did Latin American cities develop?
Like traditional Iberian towns; center is plaza and cathedral
Is there poverty/inequality in every city?
What are basic services like in Latin American cities versus industrialized cities?
Access to electricity is available if you have money and/or live in the cities (see notes)
What does it mean if a city is bifurcated?
Dual cities: 1. Money/Globally connected 2. Poor/Disconnected
What's the difference between a slum and a squatter settlement?
Slums are formal, squatters are informal
What is a "favela" and where would it be found?
Squatter settlements; Brazil
What do favela's lack, and how does this impact life there?
Sanitation, street signs, electricity; many problems/compromises
How large can favelas be?
over 5 million people; hard to estimate
What are street children and what do they do?
Children who are forced to work
Where do street children come from?
Children with no parents
What are death squads? How much of a problem is this?
Men (vigilantes) who attempt to shoot the children; BIG
What are the different options for eliminating/changing squatter settlements?
- Size & Service Projects
What is the "Brown Agenda"?
Counterpart of "Green Agenda"; Addresses things like pollution, deterioration of land, hazardous conditions at work and in life
How prone are Latin American cities to natural disasters?
Top 20 largest Latin American cities at highest risk
What issue is Mexico City dealing with? How large is the population and what percent of Mexico is this?
Poor air quality; 19 mil. (25%)
What is an inversion layer, and why does Mexico City have one?
Hot air doesn't allow the air from cars and stuff to escape
How much car pollution does Mexico City deal with?
Is air pollution a significant problem in Mexico City - how does it impact the people/country?
Yes, 20 mil. lost work days
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