U.S Gov. Unit 2
Im hella mad
Terms in this set (87)
a group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office
government action based on firm allegiance to his/her political party and votes according to the party line
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections. Our two-party system modifies extreme views and provides more stability than do the coalitions that result from multiparty systems.
A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. a range of political views.
The largest number of votes cast for the office., Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half.
the two major parties find common ground and work together to shape election laws in such a way that the minor party or independent candidates have a harder time winning elective office.
a general agreement among various groups, on matters of fundamental importance
multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Reason for a two party system
It has given America two major parties that are very much alike. Both are moderate and built on compromise They seek the same prize as in votes of a majority of the electorate. People have different views.
the current officeholder
the practice of awarding public offices, contracts, and other governmental favors to those who supported the party in power.
those based on a particular set of beliefs, a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters. Today, they emphasize individualism and calls for doing away with most of governments present functions and programs. They have been able to receive many votes.
Single Issue parties
focus on only one public policy matter. Their names have usually indicated their primary concern. Most have faded into history, themes failed to attract voters.
Economic protest parties
have been rooted in period of economic discontent. These groups don't have an ideological base, rather focus anger on real or imagined enemies. They have been sectional parties, drawing their strength from the South and the West, has now disappeared.
those who have split away from one of the major parties. They form around a strong personality- most likely someone who has failed to win his or her presidential nomination. These parties have faded or collapsed when that leader has stepped aside.
Why minor parties are important?
have still a considerate impact on American politics and the major parties. Minor parties can have a telling effect in other ways. It can still pull enough support away from the major party to deter the outcome of the election
How are parties organized?
Just as there are different parts that make up a political party, there are also many parts that go into creating the national party level for both the Democratic and Republican parties. All of these parts work together like a machine to ensure that the people who a political party supports are elected to political office and so that each party can pass laws that are in line with its party platform. One of the most important parts of the national party organization is the national convention.
The national convention
a meeting that is held every four years by each major party to select presidential and vice presidential candidates, to write a platform, to choose a national committee, and to conduct party business. Earlier we had said that parties are the place to be and the bigger the party the better. Well, in politics, 'parties' don't get much bigger than the national convention.
unit in which cities are often divided for the election of city council members.
smallest unit of an election administration: the voters in each precinct cast their ballots at one polling place located within the precinct.
an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress, one member into house of representatives
Party's national voice meets in the late summer of every presidential election year to pick the part's president and vice-presidential candidates. The convention has little authority, and has not control over the party's selection of candidates for any other offices nor over the policy stands those nominees take. It plays a role in making peace among various factions in the party, helping them to accept a party platform that will appeal to a wide range of voters in a general election.
The naming of those who seek office that is an important step in the electoral process.
an intra-party election help within a party to pick the party's candidates.
a party's nominating election in which only declared party members can vote.
crossover primary, is a party's nominating election in which any qualified voter can cast a ballot.
Closed vs Open Primary
CLOSED- 1. The closed primary prevents one party from "raiding" the other's primary in the hope of nominating weaker candidates in the opposition party. 2. It helps to make candidates more responsive to the party, its platform, and its members. 3. It helps make voters more thoughtful, because they must choose between the parties in order to vote in the primaries. OPEN-It compromises the secrecy of the ballot, because it forces voters to make their party preferences known in order to participate. 2. It tends to exclude independent voters from the nominating process.
"wide-open primary" where every voter receives the same ballot a long one that listed every candidate regardless of the party. Voters can participate however they choose.
the two top vote getters in the first primary face one another to determine the party's nomination, and the winner is the nominee.
5 methods of nomination
Self announcement- a person who wants to run for office will announce the fact.
The Caucus- a group of minded-like people who meet to select the candidates they will support in the upcoming election.
The convention- delegates nominate candidates for county offices and select delegates to the next rung on the convention ladder, then governor and so on.
The direct Primary- intra party election. Evaluation of primary, and Petition.
regularly schedules elections at which voters make the final selection of officeholders.
elections in which candidates are not identified by party membership on the ballot.
Role of Federal government in elections
a medium by which a voter registers a choice in an election
Different types of ballots
Australian ballot- is printed at public expense, lists all the names of candidates, is given out in polls, and can be marked in secret.
Sample ballots- mailed to all voters.
bed sheet ballots- list of offices candidates, and ballot measures that even well-
informed voters have a difficult time marking it intelligently
a process by which they could vote without going to their polling places on election day.
when strong candidates running for an office at the top of a ballot helps attract voters to another candidates on the party's ticket.
everything involved within an election process
actual casting of votes
a select group of people that vote in the election for an elective official in the electoral college
getting allies to work together from many different groups.
two parties together
The right to vote
dealt with by the states, state law.
Federal Elections commission, job is to regulate campaign financing.
Department of Justice
voter frauds and disenfranchisement. Will send election supervisors.
Voting Qualifications CARR 3 universal requirements
Citizenship- natural born or naturalized,
Residency- 6 months in a state,
Registration- 7 days before election
have been a growing expansion so the number of people that have the right to vote. Early 1800s-property taxes religion. Post civil war- try to erase race and color restrictions. Gender restriction (19th amendment). 1960's racial equality, specifically for African American voters.
Civil rights act
outlaws discrimination in several areas, especially in job related matters. Forbids the use of any voter registration or literacy requirement in an unfair or discrimatory matter.
a persons ability to read and write.
- local election officials to review the list of registered voting
book of names eligible to vote
persons that plan to live in a state for a very short time.
a tax by several states as a qualification got voting
new or revised laws that do not weaken the voting rights of a minority groups can survive the preclearance process and take effect.
off year elections
that is, in the congressional elections held in even numbered years between presidential elections. lower amount of voters
- many patients exhaust their patience and knowledge as they work their way down the ballot.
reasons people do not vote
"cannot voters" resident aliens, people in mental health care facilities of mental condition, prison, the purposeful administration of election laws or various informal pressures applied to the same end
lack any feeling of influence in politics
people gain political attitudes and opinions. begins in early childhood
income and occupation, education, gender age, religion and ethnic, geography, family.
party identification, candidates and issues.
the loyalty of people to a particular political party.
-the drawing of electoral district lines to the advantage of a party or group
differences between the partisan choices of men and women
straight ticket voting
voting for candidates in only one party
split ticket voting
voting for candidates of more than one party
people who have no party affiliation
The voting age is now 18 years old
sociological factors- factors from societal institutions that influence voting. psychological factors- your personal view.
factor-opinion leaders (mom and dad, teachers, anyone who has an influence),
A command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given by the electorate to its representative.
public opinion polls
interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population
polls that seek to read the publics mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people
Tool developed in the twentieth century for systematically investigating the opinions of ordinary people, based on random samples.
A sample deliberately constructed to reflect several of the major characteristics of a given population
pressures refers to efforts from members of an interest group or from the people at large, often beginning at a very basic level- to bear on public officials.
A strategy by which organized interest groups seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
organizations of similar businesses, which work together to advance shared goals
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
issues considered most significant by government officials
is all of the many goals that a government pursues in all the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved.
short, sharply ocused report that can be aired in 30 or 45 seconds
Blacks right to vote
political action committee (PAC)
committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates