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Motivation is defined by psychologists as

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and

drive reduction

A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)


An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a psychological need is called a(n)


Food deprivation is to ____ as hunger is to ____.


Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state

Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as

self-transcendence needs

According to Maslow, our need for ____must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for _____.

adequate clothing;self-esteem

The set point is

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time

Basal metabolic rate is the body's resting rate of

energy expenditure

The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include_____than those in countries with colder climates


Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by

an obsessive fear of becoming obese

The onset of _____nearly always begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged

bulimia nervosa

Unlike those with bulimia nervosa, those with binge-eating disorders are not likely to ___following binge eating

engaged in excessive exercise

Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who____value thinness and have the _____body dissatisfaction


The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high

body mass index

The first stage of the sexual response cycle is

an excitement stage

During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in psychological arousal if

they have just experienced orgasm

The refractory period is the

time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm

Orgasmic dysfunction is one form of

sexual disorder

Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who actually seem to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead him to

be more willing to hurt women

Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because

they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods

Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that

the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar

By manipulating a single gene, scientists have been able to control sexual orientation in

fruit flies

Research found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by

manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions

When people's need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are likely to

do any of these things

Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by


Those who view their work as a necessary but personally unfulfilling way to make money are said to view work as


Flow is characterized by a _____awareness of self and a _____awareness of the passing of time

diminished; diminished

Developing assessment tools for selecting and placing employees is of most direct relevance to

personnel psychology

Unstructured interviews provide a ____predictor of on-the-job performances then aptitude tests and a ____predictor of on-the-job performance than job knowledge tests

worse; worse

Scales and checklists on which supervisors indicate the extent to which a worker is productive, follows correct procedures and attends to customers' needs are designed primarily for the purpose of improving

performance appraisal

Jeff who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country> his goal and behavior best illustrates the concept of

achievement motivation

Organizational psychologists are most likely to be involved in

modifying work environments to improve employee engagement

If given a chance to express their own opinions during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision. This illustrates

a voice effect

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another

social psychology

Attribution theory was designed to account for

how people explain others' behavior

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of____and to overestimate the impact of ____in explaining the behavior of others

situational influences; personal dispositions

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained terms of personal dispositions by ____and in terms of situational influences by____.

political conservatives; political liberals

Attitudes are___ that guide behavior

belief-based feelings

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request

After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Phillip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of

role-playing on attitudes

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called

cognitive dissonance

Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ____theory

cognitive dissonance

Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as

the chameleon effect

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called


A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage


Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to

deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers

In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction

Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates

social facilitation

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal

Deindividuation refers to

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called

group polarization

Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which

individuals share a similar opinion

Prejudice is best defined as

an unjustified attitude toward a group and its members

Prejudice is a(n)____; discrimination is a(n)_____

attitude; behavior

In one experiment, White respondents typically took longer to identify words such as peace and paradise as "good" when the words were associated with Black-sounding names rather than White-sounding names. This best illustrated

implicit prejudice

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates

ingroup bias

Disparaging or belittling a despised outgroup provides people with a heightened sense of


According to the text, aggression always involves

the intent to hurt

The Y chromosome is the most well-known genetic marker identifying those who are most likely to

engage in aggression

Aggressive behavior is most likely to be____by injections of testosterone and ___by consumptions of alcohol

increase; increase

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when

an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked

Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of


Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that

many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters

Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ____in its viewer

prime aggressive thoughts

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar

The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain

passionate love

The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as

companionate love

Following the 9/11 terrorists attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates


When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in

the bystander effect

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the

emergency is being observed by a number of people

Employees who receive a windfall bonus are later happier if they have done something for other people with it. This suggests the altruism is

intrinsically rewarding

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