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75 terms

Psychology Final

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Motivation is defined by psychologists as
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
drive reduction
A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)
instinct
An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a psychological need is called a(n)
drive
Food deprivation is to ____ as hunger is to ____.
need;drive
Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as
the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state
Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as
self-transcendence needs
According to Maslow, our need for ____must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for _____.
adequate clothing;self-esteem
The set point is
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time
Basal metabolic rate is the body's resting rate of
energy expenditure
The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include_____than those in countries with colder climates
spices
Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by
an obsessive fear of becoming obese
The onset of _____nearly always begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged
bulimia nervosa
Unlike those with bulimia nervosa, those with binge-eating disorders are not likely to ___following binge eating
engaged in excessive exercise
Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who____value thinness and have the _____body dissatisfaction
most;greatest
The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high
body mass index
The first stage of the sexual response cycle is
an excitement stage
During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in psychological arousal if
they have just experienced orgasm
The refractory period is the
time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm
Orgasmic dysfunction is one form of
sexual disorder
Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who actually seem to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead him to
be more willing to hurt women
Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because
they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods
Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that
the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar
By manipulating a single gene, scientists have been able to control sexual orientation in
fruit flies
Research found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by
manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions
When people's need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are likely to
do any of these things
Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by
ostracism
Those who view their work as a necessary but personally unfulfilling way to make money are said to view work as
job
Flow is characterized by a _____awareness of self and a _____awareness of the passing of time
diminished; diminished
Developing assessment tools for selecting and placing employees is of most direct relevance to
personnel psychology
Unstructured interviews provide a ____predictor of on-the-job performances then aptitude tests and a ____predictor of on-the-job performance than job knowledge tests
worse; worse
Scales and checklists on which supervisors indicate the extent to which a worker is productive, follows correct procedures and attends to customers' needs are designed primarily for the purpose of improving
performance appraisal
Jeff who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country> his goal and behavior best illustrates the concept of
achievement motivation
Organizational psychologists are most likely to be involved in
modifying work environments to improve employee engagement
If given a chance to express their own opinions during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision. This illustrates
a voice effect
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
social psychology
Attribution theory was designed to account for
how people explain others' behavior
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of____and to overestimate the impact of ____in explaining the behavior of others
situational influences; personal dispositions
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained terms of personal dispositions by ____and in terms of situational influences by____.
political conservatives; political liberals
Attitudes are___ that guide behavior
belief-based feelings
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Phillip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
role-playing on attitudes
The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called
cognitive dissonance
Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ____theory
cognitive dissonance
Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as
the chameleon effect
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
conformity
A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage
nonconformity
Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers
In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction
Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates
social facilitation
Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to
exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal
Deindividuation refers to
a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
group polarization
Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which
individuals share a similar opinion
Prejudice is best defined as
an unjustified attitude toward a group and its members
Prejudice is a(n)____; discrimination is a(n)_____
attitude; behavior
In one experiment, White respondents typically took longer to identify words such as peace and paradise as "good" when the words were associated with Black-sounding names rather than White-sounding names. This best illustrated
implicit prejudice
Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates
ingroup bias
Disparaging or belittling a despised outgroup provides people with a heightened sense of
slef-esteem
According to the text, aggression always involves
the intent to hurt
The Y chromosome is the most well-known genetic marker identifying those who are most likely to
engage in aggression
Aggressive behavior is most likely to be____by injections of testosterone and ___by consumptions of alcohol
increase; increase
The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when
an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked
Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of
aggression
Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that
many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters
Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ____in its viewer
prime aggressive thoughts
The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people
experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar
The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain
passionate love
The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as
companionate love
Following the 9/11 terrorists attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates
altruism
When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in
the bystander effect
The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the
emergency is being observed by a number of people
Employees who receive a windfall bonus are later happier if they have done something for other people with it. This suggests the altruism is
intrinsically rewarding