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MAN 4301 Chapter 4 & 5
Terms in this set (65)
4 main approaches to job design
Mechanistic Approach to Job Design
-create an efficient machine that transforms labor inputs into goods and services
-industrial engineers often use analyses designed to find the work methods that take the least time, such as Time & Motion studies
How can we design jobs to increase intrinsic motivation?
We can use the job characteristics model where core job characteristics influence psychological states which lead to desired outcomes
Motivational Approach to Job Design
1. Complex and challenging jobs
2. Intrinsic motivation
3. Enjoyment & Creativity
What is the perceptual approach?
-simplify mental demands and reduce errors
-safety and prevention of accidents
What is biological approach?
-this approach is associated with ergonomics, which concerns methods of designing work to prevent physical injury
-the basic goal of the biological is to eliminate discomfort and injury
What are some other types of job designs?
1. Job rotation: moving employees from job to job at regular intervals
2. Job enrichment: allowing workers more control over how they perform tasks
3. Job enlargement: expanding the tasks performed by employees to add more variety
Workers can experience work-to-family conflict when the stress they feel at work is carried into their ___________
They can also feel the same conflict when stress at home carries into their __________
What are some benefits of flexible scheduling?
-allows people to coordinate their schedules and reduce the conflict associated with being a parent and an employee
What is flextime?
provides employees with the freedom to decide when they will arrive at and leave work
What is a compressed workweek?
enables employees to have full-time positions but work fewer than 5 days a week
What is telework?
many organizations allow employees to work at locations other than company facilities
-lack of supervision
-reduced social interactions
What are some alternative methods employers can use to help employee's keep a work-life-balance?
Differentiation: the assignment of similar tasks so that employees can specialize in doing things well
Integration: the coordination of efforts
Autonomy is the extent to which individual workers are given the freedom and independence to plan and carry out work tasks T or F?
What are the two elements of work design?
___________ is the extent to which an individual's work actions and outcomes are influenced by other people
What is Sequential processing?
high levels of interdependence
-the completed tasks of one employee feed directly into the tasks of another employee
What is Reciprocal processing?
low levels of interdependence
-employees constantly adjust to the task inputs of others
Low autonomy and sequential processing leads to ___________ in the workplace
High autonomy and reciprocal processing leads to _____________ in the workplace
What is a Bargain Laborer?
External/COST HR strategy
What is a Free Agent?
External/DIFFERENTIATION HR Strategy
What is a Loyal Soldier?
-Internal/COST HR Strategy
What is a committed expert?
Internal/Differentiation HR Strategy
A strategic approach to recruiting helps an organization become and employer of choice and thereby obtain and keep great employees who produce superior goods and services T or F?
1. Broad vs. Target Skill Scope
2. Internal vs. External Sourcing
What is a Broad Skill Scope Recruiting Strategy?
-a lot of people have the characteristics needed to succeed in the job
-organizations using the bargain laborer HR Strategy would use this approach to hire a large number of non-specialized employees, who often stay with the company for only short periods of time
-organizations with the Loyal Soldier HR Strategy seek to keep employees for longer periods, but, the employees do not need specialized skills for success
What is the targeted skill scope recruiting strategy?
-seeks to attract a small group of applicants who have a high probability of possessing the characteristics that are needed to perform the specific job
-this approach is used when you are looking for a very limited number of applicants with a very specific skill set
What is Internal sourcing?
seeks to fill job openings with people who are already working for the organization
-these are current employees who are ready for promotions or for different jobs
Choice of Messaging.....
Idealistic messaging-> short-term focused
Realistic messaging -> long-term focused
What is the batch approach?
-recruiting activities that bring new employees into the organization in groups
What is the Flow approach?
-ongoing recruiting activities that constantly bring in new employees
What is the centralized process?
HR is responsible for recruiting activities
What is the decentralized process?
line departments are responsible for recruiting activities
What is HR planning?
-the process of forecasting employment needs
involves assessing current employment levels, predicting future needs, planning for internal movement and predicting external hiring needs
What are the 4 steps in the HR Planning Process?
1. Assess current employee levels
2. Predict Future needs
3. Predict Employee Movement
4. Plan external hiring needs
Effective recruiting needs to understand the ________________________ of people searching for jobs
needs, goals, and behaviors
There are three types of people looking for work:
-people entering the workforce for the first time
-people who had been in the workforce but are currently unemployed
-people who are currently employed but seeking a different job
New workforce entrants job search goes through several stages....
The First Stage is determining what openings exist, what qualifications are necessary, and how to apply
The Second Stage focuses on finding out specific details about particular jobs
The following is a listing of general characteristics which attracted applicants to organizations....
-specific organizational traits
Organizations with a _________ have an overall advantage when it comes to recruiting
strong brand image
People like organizations which pay competitively, offer better & more flexible benefits, greater opportunities for advancement and higher job security T or F?
People like working for organizations which have positive reputations such being _____________________
friendly, sincere, kind and trustworthy
Another organizational trait is _______________. People want to work for innovative organizations because they think their work will be interesting and fun
A third desirable trait is ________. people want to work for an organization that is successful
What are some of the POSITIVE factors that influence job recruits?
-meeting with high-ranking leaders
-meeting with people actually in the position
-meeting with people similar to themselves
-flexibility in accommodating scheduling needs
-impressive hotel and dinner arrangements
What are some of the NEGATIVE factors that influence job recruits?
-rude, condescending and uninterested interviewers
-unorganized meeting schedules and arrangements
-being required to pay travel
Job Posting uses organizational internal communication channels to inform current employees about _________
job opening and promotional opportunities
Today organizations use the __________ to notify employees of employment opportunities
company website & email
Employee referrals occur when current employees get their friends and acquaintances to apply for positions T or F?
Referrals are thought to have at least 4 primary strengths.....
3. Better employees, less likely to leave
4. Committed to the organization when they successfully refer someone
How to increase employee referrals?
Make it fun
Make it easy
Newspapers reach a large number of people at relatively _______
Each state has a public employment agency which is a government bureau that helps match job seekers with employers
a professional recruiting firm that helps organization identify recruits for specific job positions in return for a fee
Private employment agency
Effective recruiting is based on 4 perspectives....
The cost measures involved in recruiting....
-the money paid for advertising, agency fees, and referral bonuses
-travel expenses for both recruiters and recruits and salary costs for people who spend time and effort on recruiting activities
The average time to fill a position is....
Focus on the number of applicants or hires that are generated through various recruiting activities?
What are some common quantity measures?
number of inquiries generated, number of job applicants, and number of job acceptances
_______ are measures of efficiency, and they provide information about the reach of recruiting practices
________ is the extent to which recruiting activities locate and gain the interest of people who are actually capable of performing the job
The most frequently used measures of recruiting combines assessments of......
cost & quantity
What are the two cost & quantity measures?
-cost per hire
total cost of a search/number of hires provided
-cost per applicant
total cost of the recruiting method/number of people who respond
Proponents of what say some women choose to leave the workforce because they decide success isn't worth it in terms of reduced family and personal time, greater stress, and negative health effects?
LogicForce's transportation management system has determined that DHL is the best carrier for a particular shipment, based on a comparison of different carriers' costs, times, and services. Which tool within the TMS has made this determination?
such as intelligence (both mental ability and emotional intelligence), personality (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem), and integrity
What type of departments within an organization performs tasks that reflect the organization's primary goal and mission?
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