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Bio 153- Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (316)
Which of the following is correct about plant embryo development?
The development of the shoot and root apical meristems is controlled independently.
If the WER gene is expressed in every root epidermal cell, the plant would:
greatly reduce its water & nutrient uptake.
One sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into the embryo; the other sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei, which forms the endosperm.
Before ARF transcription factors can trigger auxin-induced gene expression, what must happen?
Auxin binds to TIRI, an auxin receptor.
You are given a sample of plant tissue and asked to identify the type of tissue and its location in the plant. Using your microscope, you notice two distinct layers of cells. One layer contains cells that are tightly compacted together while the other layer has loosely arranged cells. The cells in both layers contain many chloroplasts. Based on this info, you determine the tissue is:
Mesophyll tissue from a leaf
You are given a plant sample and asked to identify a specific tissue. Upon investigation, you find the cells are long in length and some of them have small pores. They all contain fluid. You test the fluid using various biochemical tests and discover the fluid contains an abundance of disaccharides. What type of tissue are you looking at?
Plant cells give rise to two cells, one of which is free to differentiate into various kinds of cells that contribute to the plant body, are called:
Your friend has never gardened before. When none of the seeds he planted germinate, he asks you to suggest why. Which is the best explanation of what happened?
The seeds were planted too deeply and used up their reserves before reaching the surface and sunlight.
What do the two daughter cells generated by the first asymmetrical division of the plant zygote become?
The suspensor & embryo
Your lab instructor hands you a root slide and asks you to show her a cell with condensed chromosomes arranged in a straight line. In which section of the root would you being your search?
Zone of cell division & Active site of mitosis
What are the two types of plant body organizations?
Shoot & Root systems
Consists of supporting stems, photosynthetic leaves, & flowers, repetitive units
Anchors the plant, used to absorb water & ions
Apical meristems types:
protoderm, procambium, & ground meristem
primary tissue, vertical growth primary plant body, composed of delicate cells that need protection by root cap & leaf primordia
Where is apical meristem cells found?
in base roots & shoots-places of growth
protects root apical meristem
protects shoot apical meristem
Lateral meristem types:
Cork cambium & vascular cambium
found in plants that exhibit secondary growth, vertical growth; 2 types of cambium
What are the two types of cambium cells (lateral)?
cork cambium that produces bark and the vascular cambium that produces secondary vascular tissue
Secondary vascular tissue is:
is secondary xylem which is the main component of wood
primary vascular tissue: xylem & phloem
differentiates into primary ground tissue
Cork cambium produces:
Secondary xylem(wood) & phloem
3 basic tissue types:
dermal, ground,& vascular
outer protective cover
function in storage, photosynthesis, & secretion
conducts fluids & solutes
one or more cell types
each of these tissue types extends through root & shoot system
forms epidermis, one cell layer thick, forms outer protective covering
Types of dermal tissue:
guard cells, trichomes, root hairs
secrete substances to deter herbivory
flank a stoma- epidermal opening
parenchyma, collenchyma, & sclerenchyma cells
are live, one cell wall only, storage, photosynthesis, & secretion
live, provide support with thickened primary cell walls
dead, provide support with secondary cell walls(lignin), seen in stems to hold plant up
xylem & phloem
dead cells, conducts water & dissolved minerals, transpiration
live cells, conducts carbs for food, transports hormones & amino acids
Plant cell types can be distinguished based on:
size of vacuole, live/dead at maturity, thickness of their cellulose cell walls
2nd well wall:
extra support, cells with stem tissue
New growth occurs at:
help support new growth, continuous renewal of meristem cell population within plant, like stem cells in animals
Extension of shoot and root produced by ______ meristems.
Increase in shoot and root diameter produced by ________ meristems.
In order to most effectively kill the trees, you should train the porcupines to completely remove:
the vascular cambium
What are hormones?
chemicals produced in one part of an organism & transported to another part where they exert a response
Is each plant cell able to produce hormones?
produced in apical meristems & immature parts of plants
What does auxin do?
stem elongation, growth, cell division, tissue expansion respond to light & gravity
Frits Went experiment:
removed tip of seeds, placed on agar, and saw that seedlings bent away from side of agar block
Auxin in Frits Went exp:
promoted cells to grow faster and elongate on the shaded side than those on the lighted side.
Cell elongation causes:
the plant to bend towards light.
Acid growth hypothesis:
auxin causes cells to pump H+ into cell wall, pH in cell wall decreases which causes cellulose fibers to loosen and expand as pressure inside cell pushes against cell wall
Two other classes of hormones:
gibberellins & abscisic acid
stem elongation & seed germination
dormancy & opening/closing of stomata
Which of the following are characteristics of all hormones:
they are chemical signals & act on other cells after being transported
Auxin works by_______speicifc plant growth genes.
To activate genes,_________ proteins have to be degraded.
In the absence of ____, plant growth genes are in a repressed or off state.
In the presence of auxin, the repressor is ______ and growth genes are turned on.
Auxin initiates the process by binding to_____ to turn on the process.
Auxin will bind to TIR1 if ____is present.
Aux/IAA proteins are tagged with________ for degradation.
Aux/IAA proteins are degraded in the________.
ARF can now be activated and induce gene expression.
Which of the following would prevent auxin-induced gene expression?
auxin is absent & Aux/IAA proteins can't bind ubiquitin.
embryo development over time
Plants have a male & female parts that produce gametes when pollinated.
male part that has a pollen sac and microspore mother cell which undergoes meiosis to become 4 microspores and then undergoes mitosis to become 4 pollen grains
female part, has a megaspore mother cell which undergoes meiosis to become 4 megaspores, one megaspore survives and undergoes several rounds of mitosis, developes 2 polar nuclei, has a central cell, 2 synergies, 3 antipodals, and is a eight-nucleate embryo sac
The sperm cells moves through the:
Angiosperm life cycle
fertilization, embryo development, fruit & seed maturation, dispersal & germination, development of plant body, maturation & flowering, and gamete production & pollination.
carriers 2 sperm cells into ovule.
sperm cells enter to egg cell through synergids
Endosperm is produced by the union of:
a central cell with a sperm cell.
First zygote division is:
Small cell becomes ball of cells becomes _____
Large cell becomes elongated structure becomes_____
transports nutrients to embryo
The root-shoot axis forms during:
first zygotic division
Cells near ______ become root
Cells at the other end become:
Polarity occurs during:
first zygotic division
Suspensor (SUS) Mutant is required to ________ embryo development in suspensor cells which allows normal development of suspensor
SUS mutant will have an _____embryo (abnormal)
Without the SUS mutant, there is an extra embryo-like structure on the other end of the suspensor cells.
3 basic tissue system arise; dermal, ground, & vascular tissues
Dermal, ground, & vascular are organized______ around the root-shot axis which forms a ball and adds mass during the globular stage.
The area of endospore or suspensor gets smaller because it uses up all of the nutrients.
As the embryo gets bigger, the suspensor gets______.
After the first mitotic division of the zygote, the larger of the 2 cells become the:
suspensor-which is like an umbilical cord, and transports nutrients to the embryo.
change in form, forming structures, many genes responsible for specific plant structures are known, confirmed by making mutants.
needed for shoot formation
Without STM, mutants do not form shoots.
Wooden Leg (Wol):
needed for phloem development.
Without Wol, mutants have:
no phloem, less vascular than wild-type Arabidopsis but has all of its xylem.
Loss of function mutations:
wild type alleles encode a product necessary for a specific biological function
If a mutation occurs in that allele, the function is also:_____
Gene_________ or knock out decreases the level of gene expression or remove gene function completely.
disrupt process of making proteins
At the end of embryogenesis:
development of the embryo is arrested after cotyledons differentiate
__________ is a form of protection that encloses the seed with it's dormant embryo and stored food (endosperm).
Stored nutrients are critical to aid the seed in_________.
typical of dicots, primary root forms & small branch roots grow from it
in monocots mostly, primary root or taproot dies and is replaced by new roots from stem
undergoes growth from cell division
vascular bundles arranged in ring
a combo of the xylem & phloem
vascular bundles are scattered
principal site of photosynthesis, provides food for body, growth stops at maturity
Monocots and dicots differ in the arrangement of_______.
veins/vascular tissue aka xylem/phloem
Dicots have branch-like veins and______leaf shapes.
Monocots have____ leaf veins and longer, slender blades.
anchor plants, absorb water & minerals
root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, & zone of maturation
Zone of maturation:
no longer growing, cells differentiate into specific cell types, root surface cells become epidermal cells, Werewolf gene
Root surface cells become _________ cells.
Zone of elongation:
growing, roots lengthen because cells become longer, last part of seed growth, cells that elongate via merging of small vacuole
Zone of cell division:
rapid cell division, apical meristem give rise to 3 primary tissues, scarecrow gene, mitosis division of cells
Scarecrow gene (SCR):
necessary for differentiation of endocrine & ground cells
protects, contains 2 types of cells; columella(inner) & root cap(outer)
suppresses root hair development & controls which cells have the hairs
Without the WER gene, there is excess or a lot of root hairs which can disrupt root function by increase of too much water.
If there is WER gene is suppressed in every cell, no hairs so decrease in water uptake.
epidermis, cortex, endodermin, primary phloem, primary xylem, & pith
endodermis, primary xylem, primary phloem, pericycle
Unlike dicot stems, monocot stems lack:
Secondary growth is adding layers in dicots due to the:_________.
Monocots have no vascular cambium, so no ____________.
Only dicots undergo secondary growth.
You can determine the age of an oak tree by counting the annual rings of __________ formed by the vascular cambium.
surface is covered by transparent epidermal cells (no chloroplasts).
Epidermis has a waxy ________.
Lower epidermis contains numerous _________.
There are numerous _________in the lower epidermis to prevent evaporation of water and sun damage.
Most______ gave 2 types of mesophyll; palisade and spongy.
Monocot leaves have 1 type of mesophyll, not differentiated.
Plant organs form by:
cell division in meristematic tissue. Cells are dividing to make tissues to make organs.
When a plant undergoes ________, it's because it's adapting to temperature changes.
Dormancy is a way of protecting itself and stops growth due to unfavorable environmental conditions and to reserve energy for when it's favorable.
Causes of dormancy:
cold temp, limited water/light, & adult plants/seeds.
detachment of plant parts, strategy for saving energy reserves, old leaves or petals dying
hormonal changes lead to deterioration with age during abscission
Abscission occurs at:
petiole's base, point of attachment of leaf to stem
Hormonal changes lead to differentiation in 2 different layer:
protective & separation layer.
suberin-filled cells, waxy substance that helps form a protective barrier for plant tissue
has pectins or gelatinous cells where abscission begins for the leaf to drop off
gelatinous cells in the separation layer which are broken down by enzymes during abscission
pectins are broken down, wind/rain separates leaf from stem, leaf scar remains, & green chlorophyll pigments are broken down, see loss in leaf color due to hormonal changes
hormone, induces seed dormancy-prevents premature growth, synthesized in mature green leaves, fruits, & root caps, induces formation of dormant winter buds
Abscisic acid counteracts __________ by suppressing bud growth & elongation.
_____________ counteracts auxin by promoting senescence.
Plant development is:
cyclical, seed to mature reproductive plant to seed
Seeds represent a ________ stage, where they are severely dehydrated & the metabolic activity is barely detectable.
there is increase in embryonic ABA, seed coat hardens, dehydration, & stop of RNA/protein synthesis
SnRK2 is inactive, no DELLA.
ABA receptor inactivates PP2C, synthesis of DELLA- germination inhibiting protein.
Effects of ABA deficit or insensitive, causes germination on parent plant or too early germination-precocious.
End of seed dormancy:
key physiological change, hormone changes of increase of gibberellins which is the growth hormone & a decrease in ABA which seed dormancy
Triggers to break seed dormancy:
favorable temps, light exposure, & lots of water
Which of the following does NOT happen as a seed approaches a state of dormancy?
ABA levels in the embryo decrease.
Response to chilling:
causes membranes to go from liquid crystalline to a gel/solid phase
Plant cell membranes consist of a _____ -______ with proteins.
The more unsaturated the membrane lipids are, the more _________ the plant is to chilling.
_________fatty acids have a double C=C bond which prevents it from going into solid gel state & phospholipids are unchanged and can continue to function.
converts the single to double bonds which lowers the temp that turns the membranes rigid and stops function.
Chilling most directly affects:
Plants produce_______________________(HSPs) if exposed to rapid temp increases.
heat shock proteins.
Heat shock proteins:
are like the 1st response team, they stabilize other proteins so they can continue to function.
gradually exposing plants to increasing temperatures so they can survive otherwise lethal temps
What is the initiation of germination?
emergence of radicle/first root, water & oxygen reach embryo, exposure to light.
requires range of temp, large portion of the seeds remains dormant=seed bank
large portion of seed remains dormant so that plant doesn't use up all of its seeds at once in germination process
large class of hormones, stem elongation which is enhanced by auxin
Exposure to light can raise ___ levels.
red-light sensing signaling molecules in plants
Phytochromes are activated upon_______ to red light from sun.
Germination requires metabolism of energy reserves or _____.
Gibberellic acid signals the outer layer of the endosperm to produce _______enzyme.
breaks down starch into sugars & are made available for embryo to use
How would a loss-of-function mutation in the a-amylase gene affect seed germination?
The embryo would starve because there would be no sugar/food available.
Degradation of________ germination inhibiting protein.
DELLA is a:
repressor which stops transcription.
When DELLA is degradem transcription of genes encoding a-amylase can occur.
When ABA increases and GA decreases:
there is a synthesis of DELLA and sees go into dormancy.
When ABA decreases, GA increases:
DELLA gets degraded, and seeds go out of dormancy and begin germination.
In seed embryos, GA signals hydrolysis of stored food reserves through inducing synthesis of enzyme:
Which food source are the GA targeting with the release of a-amylase?
Cryptochromes and phototropins use
Germination requires_____ exposure at soil surface.
Phytochrome sense presence or absences of ______>
Phytochrome is crucial for specials with small seeds and small reserves.
Below the surface level or in shade will inhibit germination if:
seeds can't detect light, they won't germinate
Phytochrome P has 2 interconvertible forms:
Pr & Pfr
absorbs red light, inactive, dark-grown seeds, converts to Pfr with red photoins
absorbs far-red light, active, initiates germination, convert to Pr with far-red photons
Only ____ enter the nucleus and binds to the transcription factors of a light-regulated gene.
non-directional growth, blue or red light
directional growth, when plants bend towards light, blue light
2 types of photomorphogenesis:
phytochromes red & cryptochromes blue
seed germination, shoot elongation, detection of plant crowding
If there is more red light than far-red, there will be seed _______.
blue light receptors, found in Arabidopsis first, soluble and present in nucleus
Cryptochromes are found in:
plants, animals, & bacteria-microbes
Functions of cryptochromes:
de-etiolation, circadian clock, stomata opening, guard cells, root development, bacteria/pathogen defense
in nucleus in dark, cytoplasm in light, stimulates de-etiolation
chromatin, in nucleus, mediates flowering time
chloroplast & mitochondria, functions unclear, protecting from UV damage
Phototropins gace 2 light sensing regions:
Phot1 & Phot 2 in the plasma membrane
meidates response to low & high intensities of blue light.
mediates response to high intensities.
signal transduction, change confirmation in response to blue light.
Which of the following is stimulated by red light?
Seed germination, detection of plant spacing, and shoot elongation/bending toward light
Which of the following is stimulated by blue light?
regulation circadian rhythm, stomata opening, phototropism, & chloroplast relocalization
Phototropin blue light receptors:
involves movement of whole organs, chloroplast re-localization/migration in cell, stomata opening, & bending towards light.
Early developmental stages that establishes a plant's basic body plan:
root-shoot axis, 3 embryonic tissue systems, morphogenesis (organization of tissue, organ, organ system), and early cell development/patterning
Phototropism is a _______ growth response of a stem in response to light, usually blue-light.
When one plant is shaded by another, why is the ratio of far-red to red light increased compared to an unshaded plant?
As light passes through the leaves of a taller plant, most of the red light is absorbed by the chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs red light so when light passes out a leaf there will be less red wavelengths.
Plants maintain higher levels of phytochrome at their growing tips where phytochrome plays important roles in growth response to light. Phytochrome levels are also high in areas of the plant that are "greening". What does this suggest about the role of phytochrome in these "greening" zones?
phytochrome is facilitating the transcription & translation of photosynthesis related proteins.
photosynthesis, harvests light energy, conversion of light energy into chemical energy
can be bio inactive/active, stimulate expression of regulatory genes, photomorphogenesis
preparing for photosynthesis, series of physiological & biochem changes in plant shoot in response of light, known as greening, triggers plant shoot to prepare for photosynthesis
De-etiolation involves changes in the plant shoot in prep for ________.
Some changes during de-etiolation:
stimulation of cotyledon growth & stimulation of chloroplast development
shoot elongation in partial or complete absence of light, Seedlings are pale & slender.
Etiolation is a strategy for _____ conservation by seeds under heavy leaf cover.
Seed germination is inhibited by _______ light and stimulated by red light.
Seeds will only germinate when exposed to ________ sunlight.
Seeds beneath green leaves of canopy tree get a reduced amount of sunlight. Why?
Light is being absorbed by leaves so light is mostly absorbed before reaching seed.
Sunlight has a red to far-red ratio of 1.2, and light under a canopy of leaves has a red to far-red ratio of 0.13, causing seeds under the canopy to _______.
Plants try to grow tall quickly to outcompete neighbors
Plants measure the amount of ______ light bounced back from neighboring plants.
Phototropism is different from photomorphogenesis because:
phototropism is directional growth.
Phototropins regulates chloroplast _______.
Low light causes accumulation response by Phot 1 & Phot 2.
High light causes avoidance response by Phot 2.
Darkness causes dark positions.
Activated phototropins trigger ______ to bind to plasma membrane.
CHUP1 bound to the plasma membrane initiates_________ polymerization.
Chloroplast and CHUP1 are pushed by _______ _______ action along the plasma membrane.
Light lacking blue photons causes plants to:
______ is concentrated in the dark side which elongates.
Phototropins redirect flow to the _____ side.
In the dark, auxin primarily moves from the:
shoots to the roots through vascular tissues.
After exposure to blue light, auxin stops at the _____ node, growth also stops.
Cells on the shaded side _______ and grow, causing bending towards light source.
Stems which are above ground and get light are:
positive phototropic response.
Roots get no light and have:
no phototropic response.
Holobiont-meta organisms are animal host & microorganisms, so they are both animal & algae, and do have photosynthesis.
are sea anemones, symbiotic and have algae which bend or move toward light
Algae have photoreceptors for:
blue & red light, phototropins, cryptochromes, & phytochromes.
move towards light.
cryptochrome & phototropism.
pH indicates the level of:
Level of Co2 will _______ in test tube with Elodea as indicated by red color of tube.
Control group without ELodea leaf is yellow & CO2 is:
Reactant of photosynthesis:
CO2, water & light
Products of photosynthesis:
c6h12o6 (fructose), oxygen, & water
What is the pH indicator that turns yellow in acidic solution and pink if it's basic?
Plants exposed to _____ light will show a greater rate of photosynthesis.
Plants absorb _____ wavelengths for photosynthesis better than green because green is reflected back & its energy is not available.
Cellular respiration & oxygen reacts with glucose to produce:
CO2 & water
White light is made up of all colors.
Plants are green because green wavelengths are reflected back to us.
To observe photosynthesis, monitor oxygen production.
Sodium bicarbonate solution has co2 & o2
measures vol change from displacement of liquid from adding or removing substances like O2
How to calculate rate of vol change:
((Final vol-initial vol)/20)*60=mL/hr
combo of glass lenses & light
create a magnified image of object too small to be seen with eye
Brightfield microscopy used to study:
cells, tissues in cytology, histology, & pathology
apparent increase in image size
ability to distinguish fine detail
ability to distinguish objects like cells from background
Four objective lenses:
4, 10, 40, 100x
When focusing on a slide, start scanning on:
Field of view:
amount of slide you're able to see through eyepiece
overall enlargement of image
To calculate magnification:
Stage knob on top:
moves back & forth
Stage knob on bottom:
moves side to side
Sliding bar on condenser lens ia aperture- as you move aperture to increase light, contrast:
The fine focus should be used with the 40 & 10x:
bc using the coarse knob would result in a large focus when only a small change is needed
Steps to 40x Mag:
turn on light, adjust light, focus 40x using coarse focus knob, ocular lens, fine focus, adjust stage knob, 10x objective lens, fine focus, 40x lens, fine focus
Contrast image quality is affected by altering:
The coarse & fine focus knobs move stage:
up & down and into focus.
Advantages to using wet mount:
fast prep, no special equipment beside pipette, slide, & coverslip, organisms viewed in living state, movement of motile microorganisms
Single drop of pond water contains:
bacteria, algae, protozoa, rotifers, & hydra
Why are apical meristems cells like stem cells?
They are in primary vertical growth and cells can differentiate into other cells.
Lateral meristem cells are involved in horizontal and secondary growth.
The plant body contains ____ types of tissues in root & shoot systems.
The _____ tissue system forms the epidermis that is usually one cell layer thick and forms a protective covering for plant.
The vascular tissue functions in transporting water and dissolved substances throughout plant.
dead at maturity, conducts water & dissolved minerals, movement of water.
live cells at maturity, conducts sucrose, transports hormones,amino acids, water, carbs
major leaf veins parallel, stem vascular bundles scattered, roots fibrous, no secondary growth, one type mesophyll
major leaf veins branch-like, stem vascular(Phloem & Xylem) bundles in ring/pith, roots develop from primary root, secondary growth, palisades & spongy mesophyll Dicot/Eudicot:% pith, cortex, ringed vascular bundles, secondary growth
Plant embryos get nutrients from nutritional reserves in the _____ before they are capable of photosynthesis.
endosperm-think of it as a placenta
Germination is the development of a plant embryo as it gains:
Think of auxin and gibberellins as ______.
Think of ABA as:
death, dormancy, abscission, senescence
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