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47 terms

Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment

Chapter 12 7th edition Psychology Themes and Variations Wayne Weiten
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Archetypes
Emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
Behaviorism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Collective unconscious
A storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past
Collectivism
Involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
Compensation
Involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
Conscious
Consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
Defense mechanisms
Largely unconsciuos reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
Displacement
Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
Ego
The decision- making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
Extraverts
Tend to be interested in the external world of people and things
Factor analysis
Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
Fixation
A failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
Hierarchy of needs
A systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
Hindsight bias
The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out
Humanism
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
Id
The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
Identification
Bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
Incongruence
The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
Individualism
Involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
Introverts
Tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences
Model
A person whose behavior is observed by another
Need for self-actualization
Which is the need to fulfill one's potential
Observational learning
Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
Oedipal complex
Children manifest eroticall tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompained by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent
Personal unconscious
houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten
Personality
Refers to an individual unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
Personality traits
A durable disposition to behav in a particular way in a variety of situations
Phenomenological approach
Assumes that one has to appreciate individuals' personal. subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior
Pleasure principle
Demends immediate gratification of its urges
Preconscious
Contains material just beneath the surface of awarenes that can easily be retrieved
Projection
Attributing one's own thoughts,feelings, or motives to another
Projection tests
Ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits
Psychodynamic theories
Include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces
Psychosexual stages
Development periods with a characteristics sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality
Rationalization
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable bahvior
Reaction formation
Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
Reality principle
Seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
Reciprocal determinism
The idea that internal mental events, external envrionmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another
Regression
A reversion to immature patterns of behavior
Repression
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
Self- actualzing persons
People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth
Self- concept
A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
Self-efficacy
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
Self- report inventories
Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior
Striving for superiority
As a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
Superego
The moral component of personality that incoporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
Unconscious
Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior