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A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
Involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
Largely unconsciuos reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
Hierarchy of needs
A systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
Bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
Involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
Tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences
Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
Children manifest eroticall tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompained by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent
houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten
Assumes that one has to appreciate individuals' personal. subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior
Ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits
Include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces
Development periods with a characteristics sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality
Seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
The idea that internal mental events, external envrionmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another
Self- actualzing persons
People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth
A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
Self- report inventories
Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior
Striving for superiority
As a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
The moral component of personality that incoporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
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