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Myer's Psychology for AP Unit 7 Memory

Cognition: Memory and Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language
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flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning
storage
retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
long-term memory
relatively permanant and limitedless storehouse of the memory system
working memory
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequence
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention conscious effort
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
imagery
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
mnemonics
memory aids; like vivid imagery
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
amnesia
loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
hippocampus
neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
recall
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
recognition
measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
relearning
memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
priming
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
parallel processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, doing many things at once
maintenance rehearsal
The process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information.
elaborative rehearsal
A memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over.
primacy effect
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series.
declarative memory
It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events.
procedural memory
A type of long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.
episodic memory
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
state dependent memory
Learning that takes place in one situation or "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar situation or state.
decay theory
The act of forgetting something as the memory fades with time
Herman Ebbinghaus
He was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve.
Elizabeth Loftus
She is an American psychologist and expert on human memory. She has conducted extensive research on the misinformation effect and the nature of false memories.
memory
the mental capacity or faculty of retaining and reviving facts, events, impressions, etc., or of recalling or recognizing previous experiences.
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype
a standard or typical example
algorithm
a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem
heuristic
a commonsense rule (or set of rules) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem
insight
A cognitive form of learning involving the mental rearragnment or restructuring of the elements in a problem to achieve an understanding or the problem and arrive at a solution
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
overconfidence
total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
intuition
instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)
framing
formulation of the plans and important details
language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
phoneme
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
morpheme
minimal meaningful language unit
grammar
studies of the formation of basic linguistic units
semantics
the study of language meaning
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Noam Chomsky
United States linguist whose theory of generative grammar redefined the field of linguistics (born 1928)
B.F Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that language development is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments
Benjamin Whorf
Concept of "liguistic determinism" or how language impacts thought
creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
psychogenic amnesia
a form of amnesia which occurs in otherwise healthy people. involves loss of important personal information (functional amnesia)
context effect
putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something
Fugue state
characterized by a loss of memory of one's past and identity
Retrograde amnesia
loss of memory of past events
anterograde amnesia
inability to form or store new memories
Von Resteroff effect
remembering information that is unique
muscle memory
your memory for motor skills. automatic processing
imagination inflation
occurs because visualizing and perceiving events happen in the same part of the brain
cerebellum
part of the brain where the forming and storage of implicit memories occurs