Cognition: Memory and Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning
retention of encoded information over time
process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
relatively permanant and limitedless storehouse of the memory system
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequence
encoding that requires attention conscious effort
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
encoding of picture images
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
memory aids; like vivid imagery
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
loss of memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, doing many things at once
The process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information.
A memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over.
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series.
It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events.
A type of long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
state dependent memory
Learning that takes place in one situation or "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar situation or state.
The act of forgetting something as the memory fades with time
He was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve.
She is an American psychologist and expert on human memory. She has conducted extensive research on the misinformation effect and the nature of false memories.
the mental capacity or faculty of retaining and reviving facts, events, impressions, etc., or of recalling or recognizing previous experiences.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a standard or typical example
a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem
a commonsense rule (or set of rules) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem
A cognitive form of learning involving the mental rearragnment or restructuring of the elements in a problem to achieve an understanding or the problem and arrive at a solution
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)
formulation of the plans and important details
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
minimal meaningful language unit
studies of the formation of basic linguistic units
the study of language meaning
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
United States linguist whose theory of generative grammar redefined the field of linguistics (born 1928)
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that language development is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments
Concept of "liguistic determinism" or how language impacts thought
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
a form of amnesia which occurs in otherwise healthy people. involves loss of important personal information (functional amnesia)
putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something
characterized by a loss of memory of one's past and identity
loss of memory of past events
inability to form or store new memories
Von Resteroff effect
remembering information that is unique
your memory for motor skills. automatic processing
occurs because visualizing and perceiving events happen in the same part of the brain
part of the brain where the forming and storage of implicit memories occurs