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28 terms

Earthquakes & Volcanoes

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Convergent Boundary
a plate boundary at which plates move towards each other and collide
Divergent Boundary
a plate boundary at which plates move apart
Pangea
the name given to the theoretical land mass that included all the continents millions of years ago
seismic waves
the energy waves released by an earthquake
theory of plate tectonics
a theory proposing that the plates of the lithosphere (crust and upper mantle) interact with each other
transform boundary
a plate boundary at which plates slide past each other
cinder cone volcano
a volcano made of cinder (ashes) with steep sides and a bowl-shaped crater
composite volcano
a volcano made of alternating layers of lava and cinder or ash
dike
a volcanic feature formed when lava flows across layers of rock and then hardens
dormant
term used to describe a volcano that is not active
earthquake
shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy that is stored in the bedrock
epicentre
the place on the surface of the Earth that is directly above the focus of an earthquake
erupt
the term used when a volcano becomes active
fault
a crack in the bedrock along which rocks break and move during an earthquake
bedrock
the solid rock beneath the soil
focus
the place deep in the Earth's crust where an earthquake begins
hot spot
a place under the Earth's crust at which magma is forced up to the surface because the temperature is much greater than normal
primary wave (P wave)
the fastest of the 3 types of wave released by an earthquake; can pass through solids, liquids and gases
Richter scale
the scale used to measure the strength of an earthquake
secondary wave (S wave)
the second fastest wave released by an earthquake; can travel only through solids
seismogram
the record of seismic waves detected by a seismogram
seismograph
the machine used to measure the strength of earthquakes
shield volcano
a volcano with gently sloping layers composed of cooled magma
sill
a volcanic feature formed when magma flows parallel to rock and hardens
surface waves
the slowest moving but most damaging type of wave released by an earthquake
vent
an opening in the Earth's crust through which magma can escape
volcano
an opening in Earth's crust that can release lava, smoke, and ash when it erupts
3 different types of volcanoes