33 terms

Art, Literature and Culture (APUSH)

Important people, literature, authors and eras that may be found on the APUSH test.
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Phillis Wheatley
Slave and poet in colonial America. First African American to publish; her work was well received, even by George Washington.
Neo-Classicism
Art of the colonial age. Reflected ideas of the Greeks and Romans. Logic, form, balance and reason. John Singleton Copley, Gilbert Stuart, Benjamin West
Romanticism
Early 1800s. A reaction against the Enlightenment. Art/literature explored emotion and the relationships between man and nature.
Hudson River School
Reflected art of the Romantic Age. Characteristic: large, brooding landscapes. Coincided with Manifest destiny. Thomas Cole. Albert Bierstadt.
Genre Painting
Popular during Jacksonian DEmocracy, this style of paint tended to focus on the everyday life of common people, especially ont he frontier. Caleb Bingham.
Transcendentalism
A literature movement in the 1830s-1850s that focused on intuition and nature and rejection of materialism. Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
American Renaissance
Period of time during which American authors explored the meaning of "American." 1830-1860. Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick. Hawthorne wrote Scarlet Letter. Other authors: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, Walt Whitman.
Realism
Artistic age that was a reaction against Romanticism. 1850-1900. Reflected a desire to depict reality as it is. The Civil War coincided with this movement as did the invention of photography. Thomas Eakins. Thomas Whistler. Mark Twain. Stephen Crane.
Ashcan School
Rugged realism that focused on the downtrodden and elements of urban life. Popular into the 20th century. George Bellows. John Sloan.
Impressionism
A European artistic movement that gained traction in the United States in the 1880s. Focus on color and light; a reaction against realism. Mary Cassatt was the most well-known impressionist painter. Her subjects tended to be mothers and children.
The Armory Show
Held in New York City in 1913, this show displayed over 300 pieces of work that would come to be known as modernist. It was called "The International Exhibition of Modern Art."
Modernism
First half of the 20th century. Modernism focused on the human ability to create, improve and reshape the world. Often abstract, modern art was very diverse. Georgia O'Keefe. Marcel Duchamp. John Marin.
The Chicago School
A style of architecture led by Louis Sullivan, who virtually invented the skyscraper. His idea: form follows function.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Built of the ideas of the Chicago School. Created the "Prairie School" of architecture, due to the use of horizontal lines and the fusing of buildings into landscapes.
"American Art"
This period of art coincided with the Great Depression and a return to realism. But now, this realism was tinged with social commentary. Norman Rockwell. Edward Hopper. Grant Wood.
John Steinbeck
American author known most for his depiction of life during the Great Depression. Grapes of Wrath, 1939. Of Mice and Men, 1937.
Dorothea Lange
Photographer known for her images from the Great Depression, such as "Migrant Mother."
Abstract Expressionism
Artistic movement after World War II. Sought to express inner life without any connection to reality. Jackson Pollock.
Pop Art
Popular in the 60s, pop art sought to blend art with mass produced commercialism. Andy Warhol.
Harlem Renaissance
During the 1920s, Harlem became the center of African American culture and that culture experienced a revival in artistic expression. Langston Hughes, a poet, characterized this age. It was also the age of Jazz and the Cotton Club. Helpd spark ideas that would lead to the Civil Rights Movement.
The Beat Movement
Late 1950s. Group of writers began questioning America's role in the world and the conformity of the 1950s. They wore jeans and wrote about subjects that were often taboo. Allen Ginsberg. Jack Kerouac. These writers influenced the hippies of the 1960s.
Jack Kerouac
Beat writer known for his free-form, stream of consciousness style writing. Most famous for his book, "On the Road."
Allen Ginsberg
Poet of the Beat movement. His collection of poems, "Howl" became widely banned in the United States.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Wrote "A Century of Dishonor" in 1881 which was the first book to critically examine the United States' Indian policy. She sent a copy of the book to every member of Congress at her own expense, hoping to change indian policy.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" in 1890. He advocated a strong navy and used history to show that countries with strong navies were countries that made history. Sparked America's navy-building era in the late 1800s. Imperialism.
Upton Sinclair
Wrote "The Jungle" in 1906. meant to turn Americans toward socialism--instead, turned their stomachs due to depictions of Chicago's slaughterhouses. Led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Wrote "Baby and Childcare" in 1946. This book became very influential in the child-centered 1950s and coincided with America's post-war baby boom.
Alfred Kinsey
Famous for his books on human sexuality, including "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" in 1948. Challenged commonly held beliefs regarding sexuality.
Rachel Carson
Wrote the environmental book "Silent Spring" in 1962. The book is about the use of pesticides in the environment. Sparked the modern environmental movement and helped lead to the passage of the Pesticide Control Act of 1972.
Betty Friedan
Wrote "The Feminine Mystique" in 1963, beginning the modern women's movement. In the book, she questioned the 1950s idea that a woman's place was that as a homemaker and mother.
J.D. Salinger
Wrote "Catcher in the Rye" in 1951. This book spoke to teenagers through the lens of rebellion and alienation--a reaction to the conformity of the 1950s. One of the most banned books of all time.
David Riesman
A sociologist who wrote "The Lonely Crowd" in 1950. This book focused on the effect of conformity in Cold War America. As a result of conformity, American seek approval from neighbors and become "Other-directed" as opposed to "inner-directed."
The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit
This novel, by Sloan Wilson, highlighted the conformity of the 1950s and tells the story of a World War II vet and his battle with demons from the war and the quest for material satisfaction in the 50s. Published in 1955.