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Microbial Metabolism part 1
Terms in this set (28)
collection of controlled biochemical reactions that take place within cells of an organisms
to reproduce the organism
What is the ultimate fuction of metabolism?
Basic chemical reactions underlying metabolism
- catabolism and anabolism
- oxidation and reduction reactions
- Atp production and energy storage
- the roles of enzymes in metabolism
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
a hydrogen shuttle
can be converted into high energy phosphate bonds of ATP
What can energy released from an organisms nutrients be used for?
organic phosphate is added to substrate
-substrate - level phosphorylation
- oxidative phosphorylation
- photo phosphorylation
What are the 3 ways cells phosphorlate ADP to ATP?
hydrolysis of ATP (coupled reactions)
Anabolic pathways use energy supplied by:
Enzymes are extremely _______
only a small region which binds the substate (reactant)
because of unique 3D confirmation of the protein
Why are enzymes so specific?
Catalytic cycle: most are quite ____
the rate of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction is _____ times that uncatalyzed
increases the likelihood of a reaction by lowering activation energy, but are not oerenanetky changed during the reaction
Enzymes are organic catalysts which:
how many categories of enzymes are there based on mode of action
perform hydrolysis of polymers
ligases or polymerase function
sprite molecules w/o adding electrons
remove or add electrons
transfer functional groups
the makeup of enzymes
many composed entirely of protein
some are RNA molecules called ribozymes
others composed of protein portions (apoenzymes) that are inactive if not bound to non-protein cofactors (inorganic ions or organic molecules called coenzymes)
binding of the apoenzyme to utah cofactor(s) yields the active
Factors that affect enzyme activity
Concentration of reactants; higher = faster (to a point)
-Temperature: higher the temp, higher the activity (to a point); then the enzyme is denatured and inactivated.
-pH: extremes can also denature enzymes.
-Ionic strength: each enzyme has an optimum.
-Substances that block an enzyme's activity
Do not denature enzymes
•Feedback (negative) inhibitors
What are the two types of inhibitors?
which type of chemical reactions in cells release energy?
which type of metabolic reaction synthesizes large molecules from smaller ones?
Recommended textbook explanations
Miller and Levine Biology
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Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
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Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
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