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psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

new subfield of psychology that examines the interactions among psychological factors, the nervous system, and the immune system


positive or negative evaluation of the self

self-awareness theory

theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice their shortcomings, thus motivating a change in behavior or an escape from self-awareness

health psychology

study of the links between psychological factors and physical health and illness


aversive state of arousal triggered by the perception that an event threatens our ability to cope effectively

posttraumatic stress disorder

anxiety disorder triggered by an extremely stressful event, such as combat

general adaptation syndrome

three stage process (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) by which the body responds to stress

Type A personality

personality characterized by and impatient, hard-driving, and hostile pattern of behavior

Type B personality

personality characterized by an easygoing, relaxed pattern of behavior

immune system

biological surveillance system that detects and destroys "nonself" substances that invade the body


specialized white blood cells that secrete chemical antibodies and facilitate the immune response


personality style that is characterized by commitment, challenge, and control. hardiness acts as a buffer against stress

social support

healthful coping resources provided by friends and other people

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