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Social Smile

Occurs when an infant smiles in a response to a human face.

Stranger wariness

A common early fear, stranger wariness (also called fear of strangers) is first noticeable at about 9 months.

Separation anxiety

Which is the infant's fear of being left by the mother or other caregiver, is usually strongest at 9-14 months.


Refers to a person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind and actions are separate from other people.Self-awareness makes possible many new self- conscious emotions, including shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride.

Trust versus mistrust

In Erikson's theory, the crisis of infancy is in which the infant learns whether the world is essentially a secure place in which basic needs will be met.

Autonomy versus shame and doubt

In Erikson's theory, the crisis of toddlerhood is , in which toddlers strive to rule their own actions and bodies.

Social learning

Is learning by observing others.

Working model

According to cognitive theory, infants use social relationships to develop a set of assumptions that organizes their perceptions and experiences.


Refers to the "constitutionally based individual differences" in emotions, activity, and self-control.

Goodness of fit

Is the pattern of smooth interaction between the individual and the social context.

Proximal parenting

Practices involve close physical contact between child and parent.

Distal parenting

Practices focus more on intellectual development than on physical development.


Refers to the coordinated, rapid, and smooth interaction between caregiver and infant that helps infants learn to express and read emotions.

Still-face technique

Is an experimental device in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and without expression in face-to-face interactions with an infant.


Is the enduring emotional tie that a person forms with another.

Secure attachment

Is one in which the infant derives comfort and confidence from the base of exploration provided by the caregiver.

Insecure-avoidant attachment

Is the pattern of attachment in which the infant seems uninterested in the caregiver's presence or departure.

Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment

Is the pattern of attachment in which an infant resists the active exploration, becomes very upset when the caregiver leaves, and both resists and seeks contact when the caregiver returns.

Disorganized attachment

Is the pattern of attachment that is neither secure nor insecure and is marked by inconsistent infant-caregiver interactions.

Strange situation

Is a laboratory procedure developed by Mary Ainsworth for assessing attachment. Infants are observed in a playroom,in several successive episodes, while the caregiver (usually the mother) and a stranger move in and out of the room.

Social referencing

Infants are looking to trusted adults for emotional cues on how to interpret uncertain situations.

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