33 terms

Chapter 12 Services

Chapter 12 services AP human geography
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Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the US.
CBD
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services.
Centers
An office or other facility providing a specific service or dealing with a particular emergency.
Concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Density gradient
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Edge city
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Filtering
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
Galactic city
Development of the city, seen as an usurping system, progressively absorbing, by means of the infrastructural systems, the rural spaces into an urban pattern.
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
Greenbelts
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Hinterland
Another word for Market area.
Market area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Megalopolis
An urban region, especially one consisting of several large cities and suburbs that adjoin each other.
MSA
A central city of 50,000 population, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Peripheral model
A model of North America urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlements.
Public housing
Housing owned by the gov't, houses rented to the low-income families.
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the Nth largest settlement is 1/N the population of the largest settlement.
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Scattered site
Relating to or being publicly funded low-income housing units scattered throughout middle-income residential areas.
Squatter settlement
An area within a city in a LDC in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Sector model
A model of the internal structures of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the CBD.
Smart growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, turn the land over to private developers.
World city
global city (also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world centre) is a specialized city deemed to be an important node point in the global economic system.
Zone in transition
The area between the factory zone and the working class zone in the Concentric zone model of urban structure devised by Ernest Burgess.
Zoning
Planning of or pertaining to the division of an area into zones, as to restrict the number and types of buildings and their uses.
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