41 terms

Neurons and Glia

Bear Chapter 2
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2 main cell types of the nervous system
neurons (10%) and glia (90%)
The neuron doctrine
the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells that communicate by contact, not continuity
Histology
microscopic study of tissue structure
Nissl stain
stains neuronal cell body
Golgi stain
stains total neurons with silver nitrate
Soma
cell body
Neuronal membrane
varies in function and structure throughout the neuron
Function of cytoskeletal proteins
supporting the cell structure
Axon hillock
initial segment of axon, with no rough ER (as found on the soma)
Axon collaterals
branches of axons
Axon terminals
end sites of axon branches, leading to the synapses
Neurotransmitter
chemical signal traveling through synapses
Innervation
action preformed by one neuron onto another in synaptic contact
Anterograde transport
movement of material from the soma to the terminal
Retrograde transport
movement of material from the terminal to the soma
Receptors
specialized protein molecules on dendritic membrane under synapse (postsynaptic membrane), detect neurotransmitters in synaptic cleft
Dendritic spines
specialized protrusions on some neuron dendrites, receive specific types of synaptic input
Unipolar neural cells
cells with one neurite
Bipolar neural cells
cells with two neurites
Multipolar neural cells
cells with three or more neurites
Primary sensory neurons
neurons with neurites in sensory surfaces
Primary motor neurons
neurons with neurites in muscles
Projection neurons
neurons that send connections to other areas
Interneurons
neurons that only form connections with other neurons in their areas
Glial functions
providing nutrients and structural framework for neurons, regulating extracellular space and blood-brain barrier, synthesizing myelin, guiding neurons during development
Astrocyte function
regulating chemical content of extracellular space, making up blood-brain barrier
Schwann cell function
synthesizing myelin in PNS (can regenerate)
Oligodendrocyte function
synthesizing myelin in CNS (cannot regenerate)
Microglia function
phagocytosis of debris (digesting garbage)
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps between sections of myelin sheath
Synapse
point of contact between neurons
Pre-synaptic cell
cell with axon in synapse
Post-synaptic cell
cell with dendrite in synapse
Synaptic vesicles
packets of neurotransmitters released into the synaptic cleft
Synaptic cleft
gap in synapse
Synaptic integration
adding up signals from the dendrites to decide whether or not to fire
Voltage
electric potential difference between two spots
Ohm
unit of resistance
Volt
unit of voltage
Ampere
unit of current
Farad
unit of capacitance