Skeletal System (Ch 7)

Compact Bone, makes up 80% of bone mass
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Terms in this set (55)
connects ribs to sternumCostal CartilageDense regular connective tissue that anchors bone to boneLigamentsDense regular connective tissue that anchors muscle to boneTendonsSupport and protection, movement, hemopoiesis, and storage of mineral and energy reserves.Function of BonesBlood manufacturingHemopoiesisGreater in length than width: Arms, legs, soles, palms, fingers, toesLong bonesLength nearly equal to width: Carpal bones of hands, tarsal bones of feet, sesamoid bones, plus patellaShort bonesFlat, thin surfaces that may be slightly curved. They provide extensive surface areas for muscle attachment and protect underlying soft tissues: roof of the skull, scapulae, sternum, ribsFlat bonesElaborate complex shapes, do not fit into any other group; vertebrae, hip bones, some bones of the skullIrregular bonesLong, cylindrical shaft of a long bone, provides leverage and major weight bearingDiaphysisHip bonesOssa CoxaeHollow, cylindrical space in the shaft of the long bonesMedullary CavityExpanded knobby region at the end of a long bone, composed of an outer, thin layer of compact bone and an inner, more extensive region of spongy boneEpiphysisThe growth plate in young bones, made of hyaline cartilageEpiphyseal plateA thin, defined area of compact bone which is the remains of the growth plate in mature bonesEpiphyseal lineA tough sheath covering bone composed of two layers, and contains osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclastsPeriosteumAn incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of the bone within the medullary cavity, and contains osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclastsEndosteumCollagen fibers that anchor the periosteum to the bone and run perpendicular to the diaphysis, AKA "Sharpey's fibers"Perforating fibersMature bone cells derived from osteoblasts that have lost their bone-forming abilityOsteocytePerform the function of synthesizing and secreting the initial semisolid organic form of bone matrixOsteoblastLarge, multinuclear, phagocytic cells, derived from fused bone marrow, exhibit a ruffled border where they contact the boneOsteoclastStem cells derived from mesenchymeOsteoprogenitor cellsOpening into bone for a vein or artery and sensory nerves, only one of each per boneNutrient foramenRed bone marrow; is hemopoietic, contains reticular connective tissue, developing blood cells, and adipocyteMyeloid tissueFatty substance in the marrowYellow bone marrowBoneOsseus connective tissueInitial semisolid organic form of bone matrixOsteoidInorganic portion of the bone matrixCalcium Phosphate(Howship's lacuna) a depression on the bone surfaceResorption lacunaNatural mineral structure of the bones, kind of like the concretehydroxyapatiteThe natural "rebar" in the bonesCollagenProcess by which bone matrix is destroyed by substances released from osteoclasts into the extracellular space adjacent to the boneBone resorptionInterconnecting channels within the bone, that house osteocyte cytoplasmic projections that permit intercellular contact and communicationCanaliculiThe small, cylindrical structures that compact bone is composed of. AKA Haversian systemsOsteona cylindrical channel that lies in the center of the osteon and runs parallel to itCentral canalAn open lattice of narrow rods and plates of boneTrabeculaeRings of bone connective tissue that surround the central canal and form the bulk of the osteonConcentric LamallaeThe components of compact bone that are between osteons or the leftover parts of osteons that have been partially reabsorbedInterstitial lamallaeThe entire target represents the osteon, The bull's-eye of the target is the central canal, The rings of the target are the concentric lamellae.Archery targetrings of bone immediately internal to the periosteum of the bone (external circumferential lamellae) or immediately external to the endosteum (internal circumferential lamellae)Circumferential lamellaeConversion of hyaline cartllage into long bones of the bodyEndochondral OssificationVit. C, D, Calcium, PhosphateRequired for bone formationNeuroendocrine cells in the thyroid. The primary function of these cells is to secrete calcitoninParafollicular cellsBone growth in diameterAppositional growthBone growth in lengthinterstitial growth