Magruder's American Government - Final Exam Review - Unit 1
Ms. Coss AP class at Land O Lakes High School ---- Unit 1, Chapters 1 - 4, pages 1 - 111 ----- Foundations of American Government
Terms in this set (31)
Theories of government
*The Force Theory, The Evolutionary Theory, The Divine Right Theory, The Social Contract Theory p7
*A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority. p5
*System of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections. p29
*A form of government where the will of the people is translated into public policy (law) directly by the people themselves in mass meetings. p12 (Note: This only works in very small communities. It does not exist at the national level anywhere in the world today.)
*All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency. p14 (often described as a centralized government)
*A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. p14
*A confederation is an alliance of independent states united to accomplish common goals while also retaining their separate identities. p15 (rare in the modern owrld. The European Union (EU) is the closest approach to one today with 25 member-nations.
*A form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite. p13
*The meeting of state delegates (known as the Framers of the Constitution) in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution. p48
*Considered the author of the Declaration of Independence. p38 (Also, 3rd President of the United States)
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress from which came the Declaration of Independence. p37 The largest signature on the Declaration of Independence.
*Freedom of Reigion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and to Petition the Government. p771 (Note: The first 10 Amendments collectively are known as the Bill of Rights)
*Right to keep and bear arms. Each state has the right to a well-regulated Militia. p772
*Searches and Seizures. Protection from unreasonable search and seizure. p772
Criminal Proceedings, Due Process, Eminent Domain. Right to a fair trial, can't be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy), you don't have to testify against yourself. Eminent Domain protrects againts the State seizing private property for public use without paying just compensation. p772
Criminal Proceedings: Right to a speedy and public trial, an impartial jury, to comfront witnesses against you, and to have a lawyer. p772
*Constitutional declaration (Article VI, section 2) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the "supreme Law of the Land". Considered the linchpin of the Constitution. p94
*A form of government in which the executive and legislative branches are separate, independent and coequal. p812
*A form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier, and that official's cabinet. p812 ( the POLITICAL PARTY in control picks their PRIME MINISTER - Head Executive)
*Having supreme power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority. p6
*A form of government in which one person holds unlimited political power. p13
Changes or additions that become part of the Constitution.
There are four methods but the following is the one that has been used for all but one of the 27 amendments:
(1) proposed by a 2/3 vote in both houses Congress
(2) Ratified by State legislatures of at least 3/4 (38) States
types of powers
*Exclusive Powers: National Government Only (also called Delegated Powers)
Concurrent Powers: Both National Government and States
Reserved Powers: State power only (Constitution does not grant to the National Government nor deny to the States)
see illustration on p93)
*An adjective describing a legislative body with one chamber. p32
*An adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers. p31
*The Connecticut Compromise was an agreement during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be comosed of a Senate, in which States would be represented equally, and a House, in which representation would be based on a State's Population.
Considered the "Father of the Constitution"; contributed more to the Constitution than anyone else at the Philadelphia Convention (AKA Constitutional Convention); one of the Framers.
1st President of the United States, planter, commander of the Continental Army
principles of government
Ordered, Limited and Representative p29
Also known as the "Necessary and Proper Clause". Clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers. Called the Elastic Clause because over time it has been stretched to cover so many situations. It is an Implied Power. p90
NJ Plan/VA Plan
New Jersey wanted a unicameral Congress with each State represented equally. Virginia wanted a bicameral Congress (House and Senate) with each State's representation based on population. Other minor differences, too. p51
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