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a comparison between two things using words such as "like," "as," "than," "appears," "seems"
ex) her coffee is as strong as Starbucks
a metaphor that does not explicitly compare two unlike things
ex) He brayed his refusal to leave (compare a mule to a man)
play on words, one words has two meanings or connotations
ex) a fad is in one era and out the other
part of something is used to signify the whole, or the whole is used to signify the part
ex) a neighbor is a wagging tongue (tongue relays dog)
ex) Princeton won the fencing match (not all of princeton participated
when something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it
ex) at 10 a.m. the paper shufflers stopped for coffee (paper shufflers = office workers)
an overstatement, exaggeration, emphasis without intending it to be literally true
ex) the teenage boy ate everything in the house
a statement that initially appears to be self-contradictory but, with closer inspection, turns out to make sense
ex) the pen is mightier than the sword
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