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Figures of Speech - Chapter 5

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figure of speech
saying one thing in terms of another
simile
a comparison between two things using words such as "like," "as," "than," "appears," "seems"
ex) her coffee is as strong as Starbucks
metaphor
an implicit comparison between two unlike things
ex) her coffee is a punch in the stomach
implied metaphor
a metaphor that does not explicitly compare two unlike things
ex) He brayed his refusal to leave (compare a mule to a man)
extended metaphor
when part or all of a work consists of a series of related metaphors
controlling metaphor
the metaphor(s) at work throughout an entire work
pun
play on words, one words has two meanings or connotations
ex) a fad is in one era and out the other
synecdoche
part of something is used to signify the whole, or the whole is used to signify the part
ex) a neighbor is a wagging tongue (tongue relays dog)
ex) Princeton won the fencing match (not all of princeton participated
metonymy
when something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it
ex) at 10 a.m. the paper shufflers stopped for coffee (paper shufflers = office workers)
personification
the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things
apostrophe
an address either to someone who is absent, or to something nonhuman
hyperbole
an overstatement, exaggeration, emphasis without intending it to be literally true
ex) the teenage boy ate everything in the house
understatement
saying less than is intended
paradox
a statement that initially appears to be self-contradictory but, with closer inspection, turns out to make sense
ex) the pen is mightier than the sword
oxymoron
when two contradictory words are used together
ex) sweet sorrow, silent scream