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Roskin Nigeria

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desiccation
drying out
sub-Saharan
Africa south of the Sahara
Sahel
Narrow band south of Sahara, arid but not yet desert
aquifer
underground water-bearing layer
savanna
Tropical grasslands south of Sahel
caliphate
islamic dynasty
indirect rule
british colonial governance through native hereditary rulers
divide and rule
roman and british imperial ruling method of setting subjects against each other
colonialism
gaining and exploitation of overseas territories, chiefly by Europeans, related to imperialism
pan-Africanism
movement to unite all africa
decolonization
the granting of independence to colonies
sharia
muslim religious law based on the Koran
cross-cutting cleavages
multiple splits in society that make group loyalties overlap
cumulative cleavages
reinforcing one another
cleft country
In huntington's theory, a country split by two civilizations
torn country
in huntington's theory, one with a westernizing elite but traditional masses
developmentalism
Early 1960s theory that we could evelop third world lands
praetorianism
tendency for military takeovers
patronage
giving government jobs to political supporters
strategic variable
factor you can change that makes a big improvement
policy
the specific choices governments make
macroeconomy
big picture of a nation's economy, including gdp size and growth, productivity, interest rates, and inflation
microeconomy
close-up picture of individual markets, including product design and pricing, efficiency, and costs
kickback
fee paid to government official for a contract
transparency
exchanges of money open to public scrutiny
absolute poverty
living on $1 a day or less
micro-loan
small unsecured loan (of a few hundred dollars) to beginning businesses