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Human Geography Chapter 4: Culture & Social Media
Terms in this set (38)
The body of material traits, customary beliefs, and social forms that together contribute to the distinct identity of a group of people. People bring along their cultural identity when they migrate.
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual. Unlike a custom, this does not imply that the act has been adopted by most of society's population.
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. A habit that has been widely adopted by a group of people. A collection of these produces a group's material culture.
How the distribution of wine production is influenced in part by the physical environment and in part by social customs. Most grapes used for wine are grown near the Mediterranean Sea or in areas of similar climate. Income, preferences, and other social customs also influence the distribution of wine consumption.
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups. The region covered by this culture is much smaller because of the lack of connection. This culture is more likely to vary from place to place at a given time.
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. A culture based on rapid simultaneous global connections through communications systems, transportation networks, and other modern technology. This culture is more likely to vary from time to time at a given place.
2 Elements of Culture
-Daily necessities of food, clothing, and shelter. All people must consume food, wear clothing, and find shelter, but different cultural groups do so in distinctive ways.
-Leisure activities, such as arts and recreation. Each cultural group has its own definition of meaningful art and stimulating recreation.
A center of innovation and the origin of a culture.
-Folk culture has anonymous origins, originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators. It may also have multiple origins, originating independently in isolated locations.
-Popular culture is typically traceable to a specific person or corporation in a particular place. It is most often a product of developed countries, especially in North America and Europe.
The process by which a feature spreads from one place to another over time.
-Folk culture is transmitted from one location to another relatively slowly and on a small scale, primarily through relocation (migration).
-Popular culture typically spreads through a process of hierarchy, spreading rapidly and extensively from hearths or nodes of innovation with the help of modern communications. Sometimes, as the style spreads around the world, it can become less important in its hearth.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
-A combination of local physical and culture influences the distinctive arrangements of folk culture. Despite their spatial proximity, because of limited interaction groups can produce distinctive folk customs.
-Popular culture is arranged widely across many countries, with little regard for physical factors. The arrangement is influenced by the ability of people to access the content. The principal obstacle to access is lack of income to purchase the material.
Diffusion of Electronic Communications
The way popular culture diffuses rapidly around the world in the 21st century. The latest fashions in material culture and leisure activities can be viewed by anyone in the world who has access to one or more forms of electronic media. Electronic media increase access to popular culture for people who embrace folk culture and at the same time increase access to folk culture for people who are part of the world's popular culture scene.
Diffusion of Cell Phones & Smartphones
The primary means of diffusion through which pop culture spreads. In 2005, most cell phones were in Europe and North America. By 2017, cell phone ownership was common in much of the world. Cell phones have become common in Africa because, despite limited electricity, cell phones don't require the costly connection of wires to individual buildings.
Every culture in human history has had some tradition of music, argues music researcher Daniel Levitan.
-Folk Music: Folk songs originate anonymously and are transmitted orally. A song may be modified from one generation to the next as conditions change, but the content is most often derived from events in daily life that are familiar to the majority of the people. As people migrate, folk music travels with them as part of the diffusion of folk culture.
Popular Music: Popular music is written by specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to or performed in front of a large number of people. It frequently displays a high degree of technical skill through manipulation of sophisticated electronic equipment. Musicians connect with performers of similar styles, regardless of where they live.
Many sports originated as isolated folk customs and were diffused like other folk culture, through the migration of individuals. The contemporary diffusion of organized sports, however, displays characteristics of popular culture.
Folk culture: Soccer, the world's most popular sport, originated as a folk custom in England during the eleventh century. Arose when construction workers started kicking the head of a Danish soldier after the Danish invasion.
Popular Culture: Organization of the sport into a formal structure in the United Kingdom marks the transition of football from folk to popular culture. Spectators across the globe with the aid of television allowed soccer to diffuse worldwide easily.
Every culture wears clothing, but each for different reasons.
Folk Culture: People wear folk clothing for a variety of environmental and cultural reasons. Cultural factors, such as religious beliefs, can also influence clothing preferences. However, wearing traditional clothing in countries dominated by popular culture can be controversial, and vice-versa.
Popular Culture: Popular clothing habits often reflect occupation and income. Women's clothes change in fashion from one year to the next. With the diffusion of improved communication, the time lag only lasts a few weeks.
"Among the connections that tie [people] to a certain environment, one of the most tenacious is food supply; clothing and weapons are more subject to modification than the dietary regime, which experience has shown to be best suited to human needs in a given climate."
-Vidal de la Blache
Folk Culture: Folk food customs are embedded especially strongly in the environment. Folk people must consider environmental characteristics in deciding what foods to produce.
Popular Culture: Popular food preferences are influenced more by cultural values than by environmental features. Still, some regional variations can be observed between and within countries. Countries have different preferences for Coke and Pepsi, for example.
The contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes. The sum of the effects on a particular food item of soil, climate, and other features of the local environment. Certain foods may be eaten in folk cultures because their natural properties are perceived to enhance qualities considered desirable by the society.
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. People refuse to eat particular plants and animals because of environmental concern or the protection of endangered animals.
All humans need a place to live. French geographer Jean Brunhes, a major contributor to the cultural landscape tradition, viewed the house as being among the essential facts of human geography.
Folk Culture: The type of building materials used to construct folk houses is influenced partly by the resources available in the environment. The style of construction can also be influenced by the environment. The distinctive form of folk houses may derive primarily from religious values and other customary beliefs.
Popular Culture: Older houses in the United States display local folk culture traditions. In contrast, housing built in the United States since the 1940s demonstrates how popular customs vary more in time than in place. The degree of regional distinctiveness in housing style has diminished because rapid communication and transportation systems provide people throughout the country with knowledge of alternative styles
Diffusion of TV
The world's most important electronic media format. Important in pop culture for two reasons:
1. Watching TV is the most popular leisure activity in the world.
2. TV has been the most important mechanism by which popular culture, such as professional sports, rapidly diffuses across Earth.
Diffusion of the Internet
An increasingly widespread form of electronic media. The diffusion of TV from the United States to the rest of the world took a half-century, whereas the diffusion of the Internet took only a decade. Given the history of TV, the Internet is likely to diffuse further in the years ahead at a rapid rate.
A social media platform founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg and other Harvard university students. Both the United States and India have over 100 million users.
A US-based research institute for the study of democracy, political freedom, and human rights. Their project Freedom on the Net measures the level of Internet and digital media freedom in 65 countries. Only 19 of the 65 countries included in Freedom on the Net were classified as "free," 31 were "partly free," and 15 were "not free".
One of three categories of restrictions on the free use of the Internet. In countries lacking complete Internet freedom, some models of phones, tablets, and computers may not be sold. Devices that are sold must be configured to exclude certain applications and technologies. China is especially aggressive in restricting foreign applications.
One of three categories of restrictions on the free use of the Internet. Some websites are censored or prevented from being seen altogether on devices in a particular country. Some satellite and cable providers may block American TV programs because they express American beliefs and social forms. OpenNetInitiative has identified three types of Internet content that are routinely censored in other countries:
-Political content that opposes the current government or is related to human rights and freedom of speech.
-Social content related to socially sensitive topics (sexuality, gambling, drugs).
-Security content related to armed conflicts, border disputes, separatist movements, and militant groups.
Violated User Rights
One of three categories of restrictions on the free use of the Internet. Individuals are harassed or jailed for online activity deemed unacceptable by authorities. Governments may not be able to stop diffusion of technology, but they have resorted to individual harm through physical attacks and imprisonment because of their Internet activity. The three worst offending countries, according to Freedom House, are Iran, Syria, and China.
Hostile or intrusive software designed to cause intentional harm. Malware takes control of a victim's computers in order to steal personal, financial, or business information.
A.k.a. cryptoviral extortion, a form of malware that encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, until a ransom is paid to decrypt them.
The unauthorized and clandestine deployment of a virus to observe or destroy data in the computer systems of government agencies and large corporations.
A false report disseminated under the guise of an authentic news report, created to maliciously spread misinformation and mislead consumers of the content. Creators of fake news disseminate information that they know to be untruthful, in order to maliciously spread misinformation and mislead consumers of the content. Elected officials and other political leaders may use the term fake news to describe press coverage unfavorable to them.
A statement that can be proved to be false. The phrase is attributed to Kellyanne Conway, who as Counselor to President Trump, labeled as such an incorrect statement by Press Secretary Sean Spicer that President Trump's inauguration attracted a higher attendance than President Obama's.
The practice of posting deliberately inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in social media in order to provoke quarrels or otherwise agitate people.
Maintaining Unique Folk Culture
The struggle to retain folk culture. Many fear the loss of folk culture, especially because rising incomes can fuel demand for the possessions typical of popular culture. When people turn from folk to popular culture, they may also turn away from the society's traditional values. And the diffusion of popular culture from developed countries can lead to dominance of Western perspectives.
A "gift" from one family to another, as a sign of respect. With the increase in demand for these, the global diffusion of popular social customs thus had an unintended negative impact for women in India. Small sizes of these gifts have yielded increased violence and death towards Indian women in recent years.
The process of reduction in cultural diversity through the diffusion of popular culture. The diffusion of some popular customs can adversely impact environmental quality and cultural diversity in multiple ways:
-Pollution of the landscape.
-Depletion of scarce natural resources.
-Crowding-out of locally owned businesses.
An agreement between a corporation and businesspeople to market that corporation's products in a local area. The franchise agreement lets the local outlet use the company's name, symbols, trademarks, methods, and architectural styles. A uniform sign is prominently displayed. A form of uniform cultural experiences, fast-food chains being the most prominent example.
A game on grass where players try to hit a small ball into a series of holes using a long, thin stick. An example of how popular culture can pollute the landscape by modifying it with little regard for local environmental conditions, such as climate and soil. Courses consume large quantities of land and water; non-native grass species are planted, and fertilizers and pesticides are laid on the grass to ensure an appearance considered suitable for the game. Some attribute the rise in courses across the US to increased income and leisure time.
-Rural spaces, whose economies tend to focus more heavily on agriculture and manufacturing, tend to value more traditional forms of popular culture.
-Urban spaces, characterized by concentrations of wealth, migration, and diverse ethnic groups, may value more progressive forms of popular culture.
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