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76 terms

Patho exam

musculoskeletal and integument
STUDY
PLAY
fatigue
type of stress fracture that occurs when abnormal stress or torque is applied to a bone (joggers/runners)
insufficiency
type of stress fracture that occurs in bones that lack the normal ability to form and recover
procallus formation
inflammatory response, part of the bone healing process triggered by bone destruction
strain
tear in a tendon
sprain
tear in a ligament
epicondylitis
inflammation of a tendon where in attaches to the bone, caused by degeneration of tissue rather than inflammation
lateral epicondylitis
degeneration of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon
paget disease
state of increased metabolic activity in bone d/t abnormal and excessive bone remodeling, leads to disorganized, thickened, enlarged, soft bones.
paget CMs
impaired motor function, abnormal bone curvatures, vision and hearing problems
osteomyelitis
bone infection commonly dt s. aureas. can be exogenous (outside the body) or endogenous (from the blood)
ischemic necrosis of bones
caused by local vessel damage, usually d/t bacteria (osteomyelitis) because bone microcirculation is extremely vulnerable to damage and destruction by bacterial toxins.
sequestrum
area of devitalized bone d/t blood vessel damage, complication of bone abscess in children, which can lift the periosteum from the bone
osteosarcoma
malignant, aggressive osteogenic tumor most often found in bone marrow, and located in the metaphyses of long bones
osteosarcoma TX
preoperative chemo increases number of limb salvage procedures, which are preferred to amputation
inflammatory joint disease
inflammatory destruction of synovial membrane and articular cartilage. systemic signs of inflammation (fever, malaise, anorexia, leukocytosis) are also present
osteoporosis
disease in which bone tissue is normally mineralized but the mass (bone density) is decreased & the structural integrity of trabecular bone is impaired.
regional osteoporosis
osteoporosis confined to a region or segment of the appendicular skeleton. Associated w/disuse or immobilization of a limb bc of fractures, motor paralysis, bone or joint inflammation. Negative calcium balance develops early & continues throughout period of immobilization.
osteoarthritis
Degeneration of articular cartilage around joints, damages bone ends. Related to aging and use. No systemic inflammation is present.
ankylosing spondylitis
chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by stiffening and fusion (ankylosis) of spine and sacroilliac joints (no lumbar curve). Is autoimmune in nature and ass'd with histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27
gout
inflammatory syndrome caused by uric acid crystals in the blood and synovial fluid which are deposited in the joints, (and kidneys) causing acute painful inflammation (and renal failure).
tophi
small white nodules that are visible thru the skin in individuals with chronic gout. Caused by continous deposition of uric acid crystals in cutaneous tissues.
fibromyalgia
Chronic musculoskeletal syndrome. Diagnosed by presence of widespread joint and muscle pain, fatigue, and tender points (9 pairs)
physeal growth plate
layer of cartilage between the metaphysis and epiphysis of long bones. Retains the ability to form new cartilage and bone and growth of bone length until the skeleton matures, the plate closes and growth stops.
creatinine
Formed in the muscle from creatine at a rate of 2%/day. Used to estimate the total mass of muscle in the body by measuring levels in a urine or serum/blood test.
syndactyly
Webbing of the fingers, most common congenital defect of upper extremities. Can be simple, involving only soft tissues, or complex, involving fusion of nails, bones and tissue.
rickets
Disorder in which bones fail to mineralize, leaving soft bones and skeletal deformity.
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
systemic inflammatory disease which mostly affects large joints (hips, shoulders, knees). More rapid and acute than adult form
osteochondrosis
avascular disease of bones caused by insufficient blood flow during periods of rapid bone growth. Bones are not able to grow as they should.
causes of osteochondrosis
vascular impairment and trauma, underlying developmental or genetic predisposition
Legg-calve perthes
type of osteochondrosis that affects the hips. Caused by recurrent interruption of blood supply to the femoral head. The ossification center becomes necrotic, collapses, and is remodeled by live bone.
Osgood-Schlatter
Osteochondrosis of the tibial tubercle and anterior patellar tendonitis caused by stress and overuse, commonly seen in boys who play sports.
Duchenne MD
X-linked recessive disease, most common of MDs, affects boys. Caused by defect in the gene for dystrophin, causes poorly anchored muscle fibers which are destroyed under repeated stress. Calcium then enters the cells, causing death and necrosis of muscle fibers
facioscapulohumeral MD
mild form of autosomal dominant MD. Inherited from either parent, effects boys and girls equally. Characterized by weakness and atrophy of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles
osteosarcoma
most common malignant bone tumor of childhood, originates from mesenchymal cells. Tumors extend beyond bones into soft tissues, and most often met. to the lungs.
ewing sarcoma
2nd most common and most lethal malignant bone/soft tissue tumor of childhood. Arises from bone marrow to form soft tissue mass.
rhabdomyosarcoma
most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood, develops anywhere there is striated (voluntary) muscle.
osteogenesis imperfecta
congenital genetic disorder of connective tissue. Caused by mutation of the gene that encodes for collagen.
subluxated hip
hip maintains contact with acetabulum but is not well-seated. Usuall the femur head is normal, with a shallow/dysplastic acetabulum
thermoregulation
mechanisms used by the body to balance thermal inputs and losses to maintain constant core temp. Major mediators are eccrine/sweat glands.
stage 1 pressure ulcer
unblanchable skin redness, usually over bony prominence
stage 2 pressure ulcer
breakdown of skin involving dermis and epidermis: shallow open ulcer or serum-filled blister
stage 3 pressure ulcer
breakdown in tissue involving subcutaneous tissue/deep fat
stage 4 pressure ulcer
breakdown in tissues with damage to muscle, bone, supporting structures.
keloid
overgrowth/hypertrophy of scar tissue d/t excessive collagen and fibroblast activity
allergic contact dermatitis
Caused by sensitization to an allergen that contacts the skin (poison oak/ivy). Lesions occur several hours after contact
stasis dermatitis
occurs in legs d/t venous stasis and edema.
atopic dermatitis
immune-mediated. related to asthma, food allergies, dry skin, eczema
dermatitis CMs
pruritis, erythema
carbuncle
collection of infected hair follicles, or boils. Commonly found on the thighs, upper back and back of neck
discoid lupus erythematosis
cutaneous response to environmental allergen or reaction to UV light d/t autoimmune susceptibility of persons with SLE. Commonly seen as a butterfly lesion of the face
herpes zoster
shingles, very painful outbreak of lesions along nerve tract in persons who have had chickenpox
varicella zoster
virus that causes chickenpox and later, shingles
tinea corporis
"ringworm"; fungal infection of the epidermis. Results from contact with cats, dogs, rodents. Results in round or oval lesion with scaling and a clear spot in the middle
scleroderma
sclerosis of the skin that may progress to internal organs. Cause is unknown but associated with autoantibody response, and genetics. Occurs most often in women.
basal cell carcinoma
Most common type of skin cancer in whites, begins on top layer of epidermis in basal cells. Commonly found on sun-exposed areas. Growth is slow and rarely metasizes. Damage to surrounding tissues is a concern.
squamous cell carcinoma
can be in situ or invasive. Affects sun-exposed areas. Mutation of the TP53 gene. Grows more rapidly than BSC, but rarely invades surrounding tissues or metasizes
malignant melanoma
malignant tumor of the skin, originates from melanocytes. usually arises from a benign melanocytic nevus (mole).
kaposi sarcoma
vascular malignancy associated with a type of herpesvirus, most often seen in immune-suppressed persons
frostbite
injury of the skin caused by vasoconstriction of microcirculation d/t extreme cold.
onychomycosis
fungal or dermatophyte infection affecting the nail plate. Affects 12-18% of the population
vesicular impetigo
contagious, acute form caused by group A Strep.pyogenes. Lesions begin as small vesicles w/ honey colored serum and form crusts as the vesicles rupture
molluscum contagiosum
highly contagious poxvirus of the skin primarily seen in children. Poxvirus blocks body's immune response, and body stops fighting virus, causing the rash to spread.
Thrush
fungal infection caused by c. albicans. characterized by formation of white plaques in the mouth
rubeola
acute viral infection, contagious w/ direct contact
rubella
usually mild, communicable disease of children and young adults. caused by an RNA virus that enters the bloodstream thru resp. route.
rubeola CMs
fever, enlarged lymph nodes, conjunctivitis, runny nose, barking cough, malaise, purple-brown rash begins on head, spreads to trunk and extremities
rubella CMs
faint pink to red maculopapular rash on face, trunk, extremities
pediculosis
highly contagious parasite that survives by sucking blood. Primary lesion is an itchy, red, pinpoint macule, papule or wheal with a hemorrhagic puncture site. Itchy.
scabies
contagious disease caused by itch mites. Primary lesions are itchy burrows, papules, vesicular lesions.
vascular anomaly
most common pediatric birthmarks. congenital abnormalities of blood vessels that tend to persist throughout life.
hemangiomas
benign tumors which usually regress or involute during childhood
port-wine stain
localized dilation of capillaries producing a stain-like discoloration of the skin.
strawberry hemangioma
superficial hemangioma. usually involutes by 5-6 yrs of age
cavernous hemangioma
deep hemangioma, larger and involving more mature vessels than strawberry hemangiomas. Usually involutes by age 9.
fungi that cause tinea corporis
M. canis or Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
pathologic
type of fracture that occurs with force that would not break normal bone, as seen with tumors, osteoporosis, infection.