15 terms

serum proteins images

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CSF protein electrophoresis
CSF protein electrophoresis. Left shows a normal pattern. Right shows oligoclonal bands
Urine protein electrophoresis
1 normal,
2a glomerular proteinuria,
2b tubular proteinuria,
2c overflow proteinuria
Normal SPEP
Serum protein electrophoresis in cirrhosis (Cir)
shows more rapidly migrating albumin compared to normal serum (Nor) due to the additional negative charge from covalently linked conjugated bilirubin (i.e., δ-bilirubin). The gamma globulins are broadly increased in the polyclonal elevation characteristic of cirrhosis of the liver.
Positions of major serum proteins in a normal person using electrophoresis in agarose
SPEP- cirrhosis
SPEP- delayed response pattern
Spep-hypogammaglobulinemia
SPEP- immediate response pattern
SPEP- monoclonal gammaglobulinemia
SPEP- nephrotic syndrome
SPEP- protein losing enteropathy
Plasma protein electrophoresis pattern in agarose gel
α1Ac = α1-antichymotrypsin α1Ag = α1-acid glycoprotein α1At = α1-antitrypsin α2-M = α2-macroglobulin α-Lp = α-lipoprotein Alb = albumin AT3 = antithrombin III β-Lp = β-lipoprotein Complement components:
C1q, C1r, C1s, C3, C4, C5 = as designated
C1Inh = C1 esterase inhibitor
Cer = cerulosplasmin CRP = C-reactive protein Gc = Gc-globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) FB = factor B Fibr = fibrinogen Hpt = haptoglobin Hpx = hemopexin Immunoglobulins
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM = as designated
IaTI = Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor Pl = plasminogen Pre A = prealbumin Tf = Transferrin
SPEP patterns in chronic and acute inflammation and inanition
Serum protein patterns in:
(1) chronic inflammation with decreased albumin and increased γ-globulins;
(2) acute inflammation with increased α2-fraction (haptoglobin) and decreased C3 due to activation and consumption of complement;
(3) inanition post-spinal cord injury with hypoproteinemia of several fractions.
Patterns of urine protein electrophoresis in different disorders
(1) Severe glomerular proteinuria with a major band of albumin plus a secondary one of transferrin (*).
(2) Trace proteinuria with a faint band of albumin and other diffuse proteins.
(3) Immunoglobulin light chains (*).
(4) Tubular proteinuria with multiple bands that do not correspond to major serum proteins.
(5) Hematuria with a major band of hemoglobin (not to be confused with monoclonal gammopathy) in addition to albumin.