Upgrade to remove ads
Psychological Science (Gazzaniga, Chapter 2)
Terms in this set (68)
Measurable outcomes of research studies
A process by which other scientists with similar expertise evaluate and critique research reports before publication
A scientific process that involves the careful collection of data.
A systematic and dynamic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena, used to achieve the goals
of description, prediction, control, and explanation; it involves an interaction
among research, theories, and hypotheses.
A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events. Theories are based on
A specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on.
Should be possible to rest hypothesis generated by the theory that prove the theory is incorrect
The theory that when two competing theories exist to explain the same phenomenon, the simpler of two theories is generally preferred (also known as law of parsimony)
Repetition of a research study to confirm the results.
Something in the world that can vary and that a researcher can manipulate
(change), measure (evaluate), or both
The variable that gets manipulated in a research study.
The variable that gets measured in a research study.
A definition that qualifies (describes) and quantifies (measures) a variable so the variable can be understood
Research methods that involve observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically
A descriptive research method that involves the intensive examination of
an unusual person or organization.
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is involved in the situation.
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior.
The phenomenon that occurs when knowledge that one is being observed
alters the behavior being observed.
The changes in behavior that occur when people know that others are observing them
Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's
experimenter expectancy effect
Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the
expectations of the observer.
Methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as
in surveys or questionnaires.
A research method that describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them.
A relationship between two variables in which both variables either increase or decrease together
A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases when the other decreases.
A relationship between two variables in which one variable is not predictably related to the other.
A problem encountered in correlational studies; the researchers find a relationship between two
variables, but they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable.
third variable problem
A problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another,
unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the variables of interest.
A research method that tests causal hypotheses by manipulating and measuring variables.
The participants in an experiment who receive the treatment.
The participants in an experiment who receive no intervention or who receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated.
Anything that affects a dependent variable and that may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study
Everyone in the group the experiment is interested in
A subset of a population
The process by which you select people from the population to be in the sample
Randomly picks people out from the population; each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
The sample consists of people who are conveniently available for the study
Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable.
In an experiment, unintended differences between the participants in different groups; it could be caused by nonrandom assignment to groups.
culturally sensitive research
Studies that take into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions.
institutional review boards
Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for
the physical and emotional well-being of research participants.
Keeping personal. identifying information about participants absolutely private
Researchers do not collect personal, identifying information
An analysis of whether the research is important enough to warrant placing participants at risk
When the participant is notified before they agree to participate
Informs the participants of the study's goals and explain the need to use deception
The data must accurately measure the concepts that you think they measure, accurately represent phenomena that could occur outside of the laboratory, and accurately review effects due specifically and only to manipulation of the independent variable
The extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure.
The degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, or situations.
The degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not confounds.
The degree to which a measure is stable and consistent over time.
The degree to which an experimental measure is free from error.
When the amount of error introduced into each measurement is constant
Statistics that summarize the data collected in a study.
Data that are as close as possible to the form in which they were collected
random error/unsystematic error
Errors that are due to a human error or errors in measurement but differs each time
A measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole.
A measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers.
A measure of central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that falls exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values.
A measure of central tendency that is the most frequent score or value in a set of numbers.
In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean.
A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean
The distance between the largest value and the smallest value
A graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables.
A descriptive statistic that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables.
A set of assumptions and procedures used to evaluate the likelihood that an observed effect is present in the population from which the sample was drawn.
When the results obtained would be very unlikely to occur if there really were no differences between the groups of subject
A "study of studies" that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion.
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Introduction to Psychology Gazzaniga Chapter 6 Lea…
Psychological Science Gazzaniga Chapters 7
Psychological Science (Gazzaniga, Chapter 5)