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Drivers Ed- car control
Terms in this set (48)
What does ESC stand for?
Electronic Stability Control
WHat are the different names for ESC?
neutral designation- Electronic stability control
Chrysler- ESC, but used to be ESP- Electronic Stability Program
BMW, Mazda, jaguar- DSC- Dynamic Stability Control
Why is ESC important?
ESC provides the greatest benefit in critical driving situations such as turns and is especially valuable when driving on slippery surface conditions, such a patchy snow, ice, or gravel.
since 2007, what percent of driving training instructors could answer what ESC is and how it works?
less than 10%
NHTSA concluded what percentages for ESC?
-reduces crashes by 35%
-For SUV's with ESC, 67% less crashes
-reduces likelyhood of fatal crashes by 43%
-fatal single vehicle rollovers reduced by 77-80%
Components of ESC
ABS+Traction Control= ESC
Anti-lock Braking System- applies full breaks while still allowing the wheels to continue turning- "Allows you to Break and Steer your car"
prevents tires from rotating to allow the vehicle to gain traction to the pavement
difference between ABS and Traction Control
ABS- keeps wheels from locking
Traction Control- keeps the wheels from spinning
limitations of ESC
ESC cannot prevent accidents, including those resulting from excessive speed in turns, driving on very slippery surfaces, or hydroplaning. ESC also cannot prevent accidents resulting from loss of vehicle control due to improper driver input for the conditions
what type of driver can prevent accidents?
Only a safe, attentive, and skillful driver
-utilize correct eye placement
-think more, do less
one who uses superior knowledge to avoid situations that require superior skill
"Think more, do less"
what happens to eyesight in stressful situations?
its diminished, you can't see as well when you're stressed
Stable platform concept of driving
the most important part is mental- how does your decision effect or change the grip of the tires on the road?
other part is physical- vehicle dynamics- and how you manage them- how does the shift in weight with the vehicle effect the grip of your tires on the road.
what senses give you the only information you can trust while driving?
sight, touch, and sound
what sense gives you the largest percentage of good info to go on while driving?
how far should sight lines( or lines of sight) be established?
as far as the environment will allow
The Speed Issue Is Simple:
you should always be able to stop within your line of sight
-touch validates info expected in the brain
-Caution: what the driver feels has already happened
-increased G forces increases risk of losing grip
-be aware of changes in road surface noise- as the frequency(pitch) increases, your grip decreases
what is the physical starting point for grip?
literally where the rubber meets the road- contact patch
formula for safety in driving
where the tire meets the road- the size of the palm of your hand
using the vehicle controls changes what?
-speed and direction
-the amount of weight on each contact patch
braking contact patches
-letting off the gas or applying the breaks moves weight to the front of the vehicle
-since there's more weight in the front- front contact patches get bigger while the back get smaller-can cause the back to slide out- oversteer
-Long breaking( breaking sooner with less pressure) helps maintain stability
- apply the brakes sooner and longer, with less overall pressure. the chassis will stay more squarely loaded- more stable
-Panic breaking to slow or stop occurs when the driver is surprised
-ABS braking (if the vehicle has it) assists in maintaining directional control under emergency braking conditions
-releasing the brakes or applying the gas moves weight to the REAR of the vehicle
-because the weight is moved to the rear of the vehicle, the front contact patches get smaller and the back contact patches get bigger- can cause understeer
what happens to grip when the contact patch is turned?
you have LESS grip when the contact patch is turned
what is the most important piece of eqquipment on your car?
how often should you check your tire pressure?
every two weeks
what is the major cause of tire blowouts?
underinflated tire ware
ware will be on the sides, not in the middle
formula for feet per second
speed x 1.5 = FPS
ex. 40 mph x 1.5= 60 mph
worn out tire federal law
under federal-all tires are worn out at 2/32 of an inch tire tread depth
overinflated tire tread
wear in the middle-tread on the side
out of alignment wear pattern
all the wear on one side of the tire, tread on the other
rules for turns
-you must approach and enter a curve at a speed you are certain you can safely exit
-you must enter a curve at a speed you know you can maintain control of the vehicle
-reduce your speed in a straight line with the wheels pointed straight
-exit begins as you straighten the wheel
-the steering wheel must be straight to have platform stability
-exit is the most dangerous part of the turn
line of sight cornering techniques
Bad-early entry-early apex- turning too soon-reduced line of sight- not a good line to use
good- late entry- late apex- better line of sight
factors to consider for line of sight- taking the widest, most consistent path
-quality and length
- condition of road surfaces
if you go to fast for the conditions..
you will crash
front wheel skid/understeer
when the vehicle doesn't steer as sharp as you would like. terms such as "plowing" or "tight" also describe this loss of front wheel grip
causes of understeer
-driving into the corner too fast
-lettin off the break too early and getting back on the accelerator which unloads the front of the car giving the car less grip
how to correct understeer
1. ease off the accelerator
2. brake lightly
3. straighten the wheel a little-larger contact patches
4. control the car. you may go off the road
5. repeat if necessary
6. LOOK in the direction you want the car to go
if you crash- STOP before you leave the road!
note: if you brake to slow down or stop, the steering wheel must be pointed straight
Oversteer/rear wheel skid-3 ways to oversteer
B- breaking hard in a corner
A-accelerating hard in a corner
T-turning hard in a corner
3 types of oversteer
1. Mild oversteer
2. Pronounced oversteer
3. Extreme oversteer
if you have not corrected the oversteer by the time the car gets to 20 degrees, the car will continue to spin
how to correct for oversteer
1. turn in the direction of the skid
2. if the car skids right, turn right
3. if the car skids left, turn left
4. this is your correction
5. you then must straighten the wheel- this is your recovery
what is the main communication between car and driver?
operation of the steering wheel
90%-looking as far down the road as possible, and brigning your vision back
5%- keeping enough distance between you and other cars on all sides
5%- there's nothing you can do, you were in the wrong place at the wrong time
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