after Prauge Spring, announcement whereby a percieved threat to socialism in one nation is taken as a threat to socialism everywhere.
group of Chinese in favor of a powerful united china during their revolution. nationalists.
the practice of seeking advantage by creating the impression that one is willing and able to push a highly dangerous situation to the limit. political practice.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance - created by Soviet Union. To create a buffer against W. Europe with their satelite states. Took all the resources from satelite states to benefit Soviet economy.
The Marshall Plan
offer $20 bill for relief of European economic slump. Helped single out who stick to communism and those who are willing to recover. Aid that the SU prohibited thier satellites from accepting, viewed it as a capitalist plot aimed against Soviet sphere.
Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
info agencry dissovled in 1956. members were the Communist parties of Bulgaria, Czech, France, Hungary, Italy, Polan, Romanis, SU, and Tugo. The Cominform attempted to reestablish information exchanges among the European Communist parties. Make NATO feel threatened.
the US's attempt to 'contain' the spread of communism, which is 'infecting' major powers and small nations worldwide
social process of neutralizing hte influence of Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor, his statue demolished
Khrushcev's secret speech
Khrushcev gives "secret speech" to 20th party Congress of the Communist Party of SU condemning the excess of Stalin period. Secret because it was unofficial not open to the public.
how amazing it was that European community got underway again after the world wars (mainly W. Europe)
European Coal and Steel Community
member nations of ECSC pledged to pool their coal and steel resources by providing a unified market for coal and steel products, lifting restrictions on imports and exports, created a unified labor market
European Economic Community
aka the Common Market. France, W. Germany, and the Belelux countries created EEC, which eliminated customs barriers for the 6 nations. EEC also encouraged cooperation and standardization of many spects of the six nations economies
Hungarian revolt 1956
Imry Nagy was elected to be new ruler, but internal dissent against communism created hatred. That and economic difficulties created a situation for revolt. Nagy declared a free nation, made Khrushchev happy, 3 days later Red Army invaded and Soviets re-established control
Czech revolt 1968
In Jan 1968, Alexander Dubcek introduced a number of reforms - freedom of speech and press, freedom to travel abroad. became known s the "Prague Spring", but in Aug Red Army invaded and crushed the reforms
six countries that were involved in the EEC, ECSC. France, W. Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Iron Curtain Speech
1946 from P.M. Churchill declared that an 'iron curtain' had descended across the continent. divided Germany and Europe into two hostile camps.
took control after STalin was responsible for many showdowns like his ultimatum of West Berlina nd the Cuban Missile Crisis; was unable to hold his ground and backed down in all of these conflicts.
diplomat, ambassador, Czech foreign minister was son of first president of Czech. Known for defending the democratic ideals.
W. Berlin became very prosperous and many of the poverty-stricken E. Germans tried to escape there. Khrushchev ordered for a blockade into the area; ordered all roads be closed to W. Berlin. Later Berlin Wall was put up.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
aka NATO. formed in 1949: Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed treaty w/ US and Canada. all agreed to provide mutual assistance in case of attack. later W. Germany, Greece and Turkey joined.
was formed in the Soviet's response to NATO. 1955 signed by Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, E. Germany, hungary, Poland, Romania and USSR.
leader of Hungary, sent against communism in general. Nagy declared hungary to have free elections, when Stalin heard he sent Red Army and established control.
secretary oof Communist party in Czech. Made reforms: freedom of speech, press, and to travel abroad.
political philosophy of Willy Brandt, leader of Germany. Means "opening towards the east".
when Russia and US wished to occupy German territory together in which they divided up Germany
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets sent missiles to Cubs where they could hit any par of US in easter hemisphere. US blockaded Cuba until Soviets took out the weapons, which they did. higest tensions of the cold war
leader of Communist China during Korean War. Supported N. Korea's invasion of American supported S. Korea
Base on belief that eliminating poverty and homelessness, providing medical services for all, ensuring dignity for elderly and extending education opportunites for all that wanted them.
youth began to get involved in their own futures. more kids got involved w/ higer education b/c of reduction of fees and influx of students from middle and lower classes. Student revolts in Paris 1968
these two treaties were used by the west to stop futher Soviet expanison in Asia. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was to prevent E. Soviet aggression. Centrall Asian treaty was to stop Soviet expansion in the countries South of the empire.
war for Algerian independence from French. De Gaulle eventually granted Algerian independence from the dismantled French Empire
between North Vietnam and French. French eventually surrendered in Vietnam and Vietnam was now divided in to Communist north and Nationalist South
in 1953 a steady flight of East Germans fled to W. Germany. The loss of skilled laborers created economic problems for E. Germany that cause the gov. to build the Berlin Wall. Torn down in 1989.
Displaced Persons (DPs)
Jews and non-Jews found themselves displaced in post0war chaos of Europ. DP camps were in Germany, France, Italy and Belgium. Living conditions were poor.
CIA sponsored a military coup in Guatemala to overthrow the second legally elected presiden, Guzman.
Force de frappe
strike force. 1958 Gen. Charles de Gaulle was chareged w/ forming a new gov. and became President of Council of Ministers. Nuclear weapons program now had a leader. Under him the force de frappe was created.
Political philosophy of the views of Charles de Gaulle of France. Basic ideas are to create and preserve a centralized state and be unwilling ot enter into international obligations b/c of national interests.
became more common post-war era. Birth Control pills invented which helped birth rate decline after the baby boom.
Simone de Beauvoir
Participated in women's liberation movements. Wrote the "Second Sex". Believed women were forced in subordinate positions to men over time.
Wrote "Feminine Mystique". Believe women were held back from achieving thier full capacities and founded the National Organization for Women.
Sex, drugs, and music
Divorce and extramarital sex increases, pornography appeared. Marijuana and LSD became popular. New types of music. All post-war era.
As crisis over in GB added to Soviet tension, they relased its first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile in Aug. of 1957.
World's first satellite, released by the Soviet union. Led to the technology race b/w US and the USSR
Came into power in Soviet union. Brought an end to the Cold War, brought several changes to his nation. Agreement w/ US to eliminate intermediate range nuclear weapons (INF Treaty)
Iraq began to occupy Kuwait and eventually invaded them; sparked US action against Iraq, liberated Kuwait in 1991. First military conflict after the Cold War
War in Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ends Detente and hardens US/Soviet relations. US provided military support to Afghans which created a war that SU couldn't win.
President after Carter. returned to harsh practices of Cold War, stimulated arms race through military buildup.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty b/w US and USSR that created a sense of external security throughout the world.
Fall of Communism
late 80s and early 90s many nations claimed independence from USSR, which was under the rule of Gorbachev. Dec. 1991 Soviet Union no longer exist. Spelled out the end of the long lasting domination of Communism in E. Europe.
Breakup of USSR
Many nations that had formerly been part of the SU moved for complete independence. in '91 leader in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia announced that USSR no longer existed.
Independent labor movement in Poland that represent 10 mil of Poland's 35 mil people. The movement was stopped by the gov. inthe early 80s but eventually won out, formed a new Polsih gov. in '88
Soviet reform-minded cabinet member who replaced Nagy and worked to stop the revolt. Saved a lot of Nagy's economic reforms by collaborating w/ the soviet invaders.
An environment group from the Czech dissident who emphasized environmental damage as one of the chief crimes of communist govs.
6 week period between Nov 17-Dec 29 1989, borught about the bloodless overthrow of the Czech communist regime
Leader of Communist gov. in Romanai, established a rigid dictorial regime. Exploited Romania and crushed the Timisorara demonstration.
Unification of Germany
With the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the collapse of the East German gov., E. and W. Germany were united into Germany, w/ no seperate govs. or internal borders.
Milosevic was the Serbian leader who wanted to unite Yugoslavia and all the neighboring countries such as the Croats and Bosnians, so he invaded Croatia.
War in Bosnia
Milosevic's other attempt at uniting neighboring countries, invaded Bosnia to try to get them to unite.
Milosevic stirred criticism by giving financial and military support to Serbian minorities int he newly independent republics andby pursuing a policy of ethinc cleansing, in which he believed Serbians had the right to dominate - massacred the Croats and Bosnians
committed members of the previously established EC to adopt a single currency called euro and common foreign policy and defense.
British political leader. GB's first woman Prime Minister. Initiated the "Thatcher REvolution", a series of social and economic changes that dismantled many aspects of GB postwar welfare state.
When Argentina tried to take control of the Falkland Islands (GB colony). GB successfully fended them off.
acts of terror by individuals and groups opposed to governments. Became increasingly popular after WWII. 9/11/01
Under Adenauer, to uphold the economic expansion, W. Germany imported hundreds of thousands of 'guest workers' primarily from Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia
Best example of postmodern artists who made use of Abstract Expressionism (Neo-expressionism). Combined aspects of Abstract Expressionism, collage and german Expressionism.
"Waiting for Godot"
Samuel Beckett's work that showed that the action on the state was not realistic.
beginning in the Cold War ear, can be defined as a corporate empire and Armageddon. A war was used in place of culture.
John Paul II
First non-Italian elected pop1500s. Largely strengthened the role of the Catholic Church through his numerous travels around the world. Popular supporter of world peace.
Non-government Organizations (NGOs)
Development of these orgainzations was laregly due to the growth of an independent public movement and its aspiration for participatin in political, economic and social life.